Abstract

An array of square current-carrying wires is proposed to construct a two-dimensional (2D) array of surface magneto-optical traps and Ioffe magnetic ones for realizing a 2D lattice of Bose-Einstein condensations (BECs) on an atom chip. Our study shows that when a vertical homogeneous bias magnetic field is only used, the wires will form a 2D array of quadrupole magnetic traps, which can be used to construct 2D lattice of surface magneto-optical micro-traps. While another horizontal homogeneous bias field is added simultaneously, the above 2D array of quadrupole micro-traps will be changed as an array of surface Ioffe micro-traps, which can be used to form a 2D magnetic lattice and then realize a 2D array of BECs. The dynamic loading process of cold 87Rb atoms from each micro-MOT into Ioffe micro-trap is studied by using Monte-Carlo simulations, and our results show that the scheme can be used to realize a natural and effective loading of cold atoms from 2D array of micro-MOTs into 2D array of Ioffe micro-traps, and the loading efficiency can be reach ~65%. Moreover, the positions of each BEC (or MOT) in 2D array of magnetic micro-traps can be controlled by adjusting the currents in the wires or by changing the additional vertical bias field.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (1)

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. Li, "Flat-topped light beams with non-circular cross-sections," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1957-1966 (2003)
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Grabowski, and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Y. Ni, N. Liu, J. Yin, "Diffracted field distributions from the HE11 mode in a hollow optical fibre for an atomic funnel," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 300-308 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. Reichel, "Microchip traps andBose-Einstein condensation," Appl. Phys. B 75, 469-487 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, W. Gao, J. Hu and Y. Wang, "Magnetic surface microtraps for realizing an array ofalkali atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or Bose clusters," Opt. Commun. 206,99-113 (2002)
[CrossRef]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (6)

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, J. Reichel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, "Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 608-611 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

ARobert. O. Sirjean,A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein Condensate of Metastable Atoms," Science 292,461-464 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, E. S. Polzik, "Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects,"Nature 413,400-403 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, "Evanescent light-wave atomic funnel: A tandem hollow-fiber, hollow-beam approach," Phys. Rev. A 57, 1957-1966 (1998)
[CrossRef]

B. P. Anderson, M. A. Kasevich, "Macroscopic quantum interference from atomic tunnel arrays," Science 282, 1686-1689 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

M. H. Anderson and J.R. Ensher, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,"Science 269, 198-201 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett and R. G. Hulet, "Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687-1690 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. Gori, "Flattened gaussian beams," Opt. Commun.,  107, 335-341 (1994)
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Anderson, B. P.

B. P. Anderson, M. A. Kasevich, "Macroscopic quantum interference from atomic tunnel arrays," Science 282, 1686-1689 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. H.

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson and J.R. Ensher, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,"Science 269, 198-201 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, L. M.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Joseph, I.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Bloch, I.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, C. C.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett and R. G. Hulet, "Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687-1690 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecha, R. J.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briegel, H. J.

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

Calaro, T.

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

Cassettari, D.

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirac, J. I.

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

Claussen, N. R.

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Cornell, E. A.

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornish, S. L.

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J.R.

M. H. Anderson and J.R. Ensher, "Observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,"Science 269, 198-201 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, G.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folman, R.

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, D. G.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Gao, W.

J. Yin, W. Gao, J. Hu and Y. Wang, "Magnetic surface microtraps for realizing an array ofalkali atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or Bose clusters," Opt. Commun. 206,99-113 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Goati, G.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gori, F.

F. Gori, "Flattened gaussian beams," Opt. Commun.,  107, 335-341 (1994)
[CrossRef]

Grabowski, A.

A. Grabowski, and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Greiner, M.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greytak, T. J.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Groth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, J. Reichel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, "Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 608-611 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsel, W.

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, J. Reichel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, "Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 608-611 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbig, J.

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Hessmo, B.

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofferberth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

W. Hänsel, J. Reichel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, "Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 608-611 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

J. Yin, W. Gao, J. Hu and Y. Wang, "Magnetic surface microtraps for realizing an array ofalkali atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or Bose clusters," Opt. Commun. 206,99-113 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Hulet, R. G.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett and R. G. Hulet, "Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687-1690 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inguscio, M.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaksch, D.

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

Johnson, K. S.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Julsgaard, B.

B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, E. S. Polzik, "Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects,"Nature 413,400-403 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M. A.

B. P. Anderson, M. A. Kasevich, "Macroscopic quantum interference from atomic tunnel arrays," Science 282, 1686-1689 (1998)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killian, T. C.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Kozhekin, A.

B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, E. S. Polzik, "Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects,"Nature 413,400-403 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krüger, P.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landhuis, D.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Leduc, M.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Léonard, J.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, "Flat-topped light beams with non-circular cross-sections," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1957-1966 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

Y. Ni, N. Liu, J. Yin, "Diffracted field distributions from the HE11 mode in a hollow optical fibre for an atomic funnel," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 300-308 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. T.

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, T.

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, O.

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mark, M.

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M. O.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modugno, G.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, S. C.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Nagerl, H. C.

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

Y. Ni, N. Liu, J. Yin, "Diffracted field distributions from the HE11 mode in a hollow optical fibre for an atomic funnel," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 300-308 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Olshanii, M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Perales, F.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

A. Grabowski, and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

Polzik, E. S.

B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, E. S. Polzik, "Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects,"Nature 413,400-403 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Rasel, E.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Reichel, J.

J. Reichel, "Microchip traps andBose-Einstein condensation," Appl. Phys. B 75, 469-487 (2002)
[CrossRef]

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, J. Reichel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, "Magnetic conveyor belt for transporting and merging trapped atom clouds," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 608-611 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, M. J.

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. L.

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

Sackett, C. A.

C. C. Bradley, C. A. Sackett and R. G. Hulet, "Bose-Einstein condensation of lithium: observation of limited condensate number," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1687-1690 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santos, F. P. D.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Schmiedmayer, J.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

R. Folman, P. Krüger, D. Cassettari, B. Hessmo, T. Maier, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Controlling cold Atoms using nanofabricated surfaces: Atom chips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4749-4752 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumm, T.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Simoni, A.

G. Modugno, G. Ferrari, G. Goati, R. J. Brecha, A. Simoni, and M. Inguscio, "Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms bysympathetic cooling," Science 294,1320-1322 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

Thywissen, J. H.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, C. S.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

van Druten, N. J.

K. B. Davis, M. O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. S. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, and W. Ketterle, "Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3969-3973 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

F. P. D. Santos, J. Léonard, J. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Yin, W. Gao, J. Hu and Y. Wang, "Magnetic surface microtraps for realizing an array ofalkali atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or Bose clusters," Opt. Commun. 206,99-113 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, "Evanescent light-wave atomic funnel: A tandem hollow-fiber, hollow-beam approach," Phys. Rev. A 57, 1957-1966 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. N.

Weber, T.

T. Weber, J. Herbig, M. Mark, H. C. Nagerl, and R. Grimm, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Cesium," Science 299, 232-235 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Weetervelt, R. M.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

Westervelt, R. M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, C. Wieman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

S. L. Cornish, N. R. Claussen, J. L. Roberts, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, "Stable 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensates with widely tunable interactions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1795-1798 (2000)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. T. Lu, K. L Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, C. E. Wieman, "Low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331-3334 (1996)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wildermuth, S.

T. Schumm, S. Hofferberth, L. M. Andersson, S. Wildermuth, S. Groth, I. Bar-Joseph, J. Schmiedmayer and P. Krüger, "Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip," Nature Phys. 1, 57-62 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Willmann, L.

D. G. Fried, T. C. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. C. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. J. Greytak, "Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3811-3814 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Yin, J.

Y. Ni, N. Liu, J. Yin, "Diffracted field distributions from the HE11 mode in a hollow optical fibre for an atomic funnel," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 300-308 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, W. Gao, J. Hu and Y. Wang, "Magnetic surface microtraps for realizing an array ofalkali atomic Bose-Einstein condensates or Bose clusters," Opt. Commun. 206,99-113 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, "Evanescent light-wave atomic funnel: A tandem hollow-fiber, hollow-beam approach," Phys. Rev. A 57, 1957-1966 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Zabow, G.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

J. Yin, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, "Evanescent light-wave atomic funnel: A tandem hollow-fiber, hollow-beam approach," Phys. Rev. A 57, 1957-1966 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Zoller, P.

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Reichel, "Microchip traps andBose-Einstein condensation," Appl. Phys. B 75, 469-487 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (2)

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, M. Prentiss, "Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 361-367 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Grabowski, and T. Pfau, "A lattice of magneto-optical and magnetic traps for cold atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 22, 347-354 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

Y. Li, "Flat-topped light beams with non-circular cross-sections," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1957-1966 (2003)
[CrossRef]

H. J. Briegel, T. Calaro, D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, "Quantum computing with neutral atoms," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 415-451 (2000)

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

Y. Ni, N. Liu, J. Yin, "Diffracted field distributions from the HE11 mode in a hollow optical fibre for an atomic funnel," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 300-308 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (3)

B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, E. S. Polzik, "Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects,"Nature 413,400-403 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hänsel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, J. Reichel, "Bose-Einstein condensation on amicroelectronic chip," Nature 413, 498-501 (2001)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. W. Hänsch, I. Bloch, "Quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator in a gas of ultracold atoms,"Nature 415, 39-44 (2002)
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of 2D array of surface magneto-optical or magnetic micro-traps by using a 2D array of square current-carrying wires combined with additional bias magnetic fields

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Magnetic field contours of 2D array of magnetic quadrupole traps on the (a) xoy plane (Z0= 1.62mm) and (b) xoz plane . The white zone presents the zero B-field value, and the interval of the contours is 0.1G.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Dependence of the position z0 of each MOT in the z-direction on the current I in the wire or on the vertical bias field). The left vertical axis presents the current value in the wire, and the right one presents the additional bias field B Z0 value. (b) Distributions of the magnetic fields their field gradients in the x and z directions. The distributions of the magnetic field and its gradient in the y direction are the same as that in the x direction.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Magnetic field contours of 2D Ioffe micro-traps on the (a) xoy plane and (b) xoz plane. The white zone shows the minimum B-field value, and the interval of the contours is 2G.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Distributions of the magnetic fields from 2D Ioffe traps and their field gradients and curvatures in the (a) x direction, (b) y direction, and (c) z direction

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Evolution of the magnetic field contours (left figures) in (a) xoy plane and (b) xoz plane when each micro-well is changed from a micro-MOT to Ioffe micro-trap for (1) t= 0; (2) t= 50ms; (3) t= 100ms; (4) t= 150ms; and (5) t= 200ms. While right figures show the spatial distributons of cold atomic cloud from Monte-Carlo simulations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Dependence of relative atomic number N/N 0 (circular points) and its density n/n 0 (triangular points) in each micro-trap on the evolution time t during the loading process of cold atoms from each micro-MOT to each Ioffe micro-trap. Here N0 and n0 are the atomic number and its density in each micro-trap when t= 0. (b) Dependence of the temperatures of cold atoms in each micro-trap on the evolution time t during the loading process of cold atoms from each micro-MOT to each Ioffe micro-trap. The data points are the results from Monte-Carlo simulations, and the solid lines are the theoretical results predicted by Eq.(10)

Equations (10)

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B x = μ 0 I x ̂ 4 π m = N N n = N N ( a + mc a + mc z ( ( x + a nc ) 2 + ( y y ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dx ' + a + mc a + mc z ( ( x a nc ) 2 + ( y y ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dy ' )
B y = μ 0 I y ̂ 4 π m = N N n = N N ( a + nc a + nc z ( ( x + x ' ) 2 + ( y a mc ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dx ' + a + nc a + nc z ( ( x x ' ) 2 + ( y + a mc ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dx ' ) ,
B z = μ 0 I z ̂ 4 π m = N N n = N N ( a + mc a + mc ( x + a nc ) ( ( x + a nc ) 2 + ( y y ' ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dy ' + a + mc a + mc ( x a nc ) ( ( x a nc ) 2 + ( y y ' ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dy ' + a + nc a + nc y a mc ( ( x x ' ) 2 + ( y a mc ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dx ' + a + nc a + nc y + a mc ( ( x x ' ) 2 + ( y + a mc ) 2 + z 2 ) 3 / 2 dx ' ) B Z 0 z ̂
2 μ 0 Ia 2 π ( a 2 + z 0 2 ) 2 a 2 + z 0 2 = B Z 0 .
{ B x = B y 26 μ 0 I 2 πa 2 B z 51 μ 0 I 2 πa 2 ( G / cm ) .
N = ( 1 6 ) ( V 2 3 σ ) v c 4 ( m 2 k B T 0 ) 2 ,
k B T = ħ Γ 4 1 + 2 q ( I I s ) + ( 2 δ Γ ) 2 2 δ Γ ,
U mag ( r ) = μ B ( r ) = g F m F μ B B ( r ) ,
I = 3 + 60 t , B x 0 = 20 t , B z 0 = 0.8 10 t + 1300 t 2 ,
ω = 127 + 25 I , ω y = 37 + 27 I 5.7 B x 0 , ω z = 12.1 + 49.3 I 1.2 B z 0 ,

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