Abstract

We report the observation of continuous-wave second-harmonic generation in waveguide directional couplers. We employ a GaAs/AlGaAs system and observe four resonance peaks in a ~15nm spectral range, with a maximal conversion efficiency of 1.6%W-1cm-2. This observation is theoretically explained by the coupled-mode theory. This new configuration has the potential to open a new range of applications for nonlinear frequency conversion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press Inc., 2003).
  2. M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-31 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Van der Ziel, "Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60-61 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Dong, and A. G. Kirk, "Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,133901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Skauli, "Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 628-630 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. A. A. Maier, "Coupled modes phase matching and synchronous non-linear wave interaction in coupled waveguides," Kvantovaya Elektronika 7, 1596-1598 (1980).
  17. S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).
  18. X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, "A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique," Opt. Commun. 150, 235-238 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Chowdhury, and L. McCaughan, "Continuously phase-matched M-waveguides for second-order nonlinear upconversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 486-488 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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  23. K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

P. Dong, and A. G. Kirk, "Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,133901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Chowdhury, and L. McCaughan, "Continuously phase-matched M-waveguides for second-order nonlinear upconversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 486-488 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, "A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique," Opt. Commun. 150, 235-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

1980 (1)

A. A. Maier, "Coupled modes phase matching and synchronous non-linear wave interaction in coupled waveguides," Kvantovaya Elektronika 7, 1596-1598 (1980).

1975 (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, "Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60-61 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Antoniades, N.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevol’nyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buritskii, K. S.

S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chernykh, V.

S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

De Rossi, A.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, and A. G. Kirk, "Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,133901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducci, S.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eibl, M.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, K.

K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, "A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique," Opt. Commun. 150, 235-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwanow, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A. G.

P. Dong, and A. G. Kirk, "Nonlinear frequency conversion in waveguide directional couplers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,133901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lanco, L.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation-tuning and tolerance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maier, A. A.

A. A. Maier, "Coupled modes phase matching and synchronous non-linear wave interaction in coupled waveguides," Kvantovaya Elektronika 7, 1596-1598 (1980).

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mattle, K.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Min, Y.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moutzouris, K.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, V.

S. Ducci, L. Lanco, V. Berger, A. De Rossi, V. Ortiz, and M. Calligaro, "Continuous-wave second harmonic generation in modal phase matched semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2974-2976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palma, G. M.

K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, "Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric," Phys. Rev. 127, 1918-1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajhel, A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seppen, C. J. E.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skauli, T.

Sohler, W.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staring, E. G. J.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Assanto, G. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. V. Stryland, "All-optical switching devices based on large nonlinear phase shifts from second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  62, 1323-1325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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K. Ekert, J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and G. M. Palma, "Practical quantum cryptography based on 2-photon interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1293-1296 (1992).
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P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. Van der Ziel, "Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60-61 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Venhuizen, A. H. J.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. R.

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, "A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique," Opt. Commun. 150, 235-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
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Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zolotov, E. M.

S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. P. Van der Ziel, "Phase-matched harmonic generation in a laminar structure with wave propagation in the plane of the layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 60-61 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, E. G. J. Staring, and A. H. J. Venhuizen, "Efficient modal dispersion phase-matched frequency-doubling in poled polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2483-2485 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, "Optical second harmonic generation in form of coherent Cerenkov radiation from a thin-film waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 447-449 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, "Wavelength conversion by difference frequency generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer bonding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609-2611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, M. Ebrahimzadeh, A. De Rossi, M. Calligaro, V. Ortiz, and V. Berger, "Second-harmonic generation through optimized modal phase matching in semiconductor waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 620-622 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, and J. Nagle, "Phase matching using an isotropic nonlinear optical material," Nature 391, 463-465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouwmeester, J. W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature,  390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, "A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique," Opt. Commun. 150, 235-238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons", Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. M. Fejer, "Nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Phys. Today 47, 25-31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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S. I. Bozhevol’nyi, K. S. Buritskii, E. M. Zolotov, and V. Chernykh, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 278 (1981).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Refractive index distribution at 1.55μm (solid line) and 0.775μm (dotted line). (b) Intensity distribution |E|2 of modes TE0 (solid line) and TM0 (dashed line) at 1.55μm, and TE2 at 0.775μm (dotted line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical SHG power as a function of the fundamental wavelength. Three curves were obtained by varying the position of input beam. It is evident that four resonance peaks are found, and the relative peak ratio at resonance can be alternated by the change of input location.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log-log plot of the second-harmonic output power as a function of the input fundamental power. The best fit gives a slope ~2.0 which verifies the quadratic dependence of the SHG on the pumping power.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d A 2 ω T E 2 dz = 2 ω T E 2 B 2 ω T E 2 A ω T E 0 A ω T M 0 exp ( iΔkz )
d B 2 ω T E 2 dz = 2 ω T E 2 A 2 ω T E 2 B ω T E 0 B ω T M 0 exp ( iΔkz )
A ω T E 0 = c 1 exp ( ω T E 0 z ) + c 2 exp ( ω T E 0 z )
B ω T E 0 = c 1 exp ( ω T E 0 z ) + c 2 exp ( ω T E 0 z )
A ω T M 0 = c 1 exp ( ω T M 0 z ) + c 2 exp ( ω T M 0 z )
B ω T M 0 = c 1 exp ( ω T M 0 z ) + c 2 exp ( ω T M 0 z )
± ( κ ω T E 0 + κ ω T M 0 ) + Δk = κ 2 ω T E 2
± ( κ ω T E 0 κ ω T M 0 ) + Δk = κ 2 ω T E 2

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