Abstract

We report on the first experimental measurement of the spectral broadening of the harmonic emission associated with only the long electron quantum paths as a function of the driving pulse intensity. For such measurements we have estimated the chirp coefficient associated with the long quantum paths, within the strong-field approximation. This coefficient describes how the harmonic phase depends on the intensity of the driving laser field. The dependence of the chirp coefficient on the driving pulse intensity and on the harmonic order, which strongly influence the characteristics of the harmonic radiation, has been experimentally investigated. The experimental values turn out to be in excellent agreement with the results of numerical simulations based on the use of the nonadiabatic saddle-point method.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Agostini and L.F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813-855 (2004).
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  4. I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane and H. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the "singlecycle" regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,1251-1254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
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  6. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
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  12. P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Measurement of Harmonic Phase Differences by Interference of Attosecond Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193903-1-4 (2005).
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  24. P. Salières, A. L’Huillier and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3776-3779 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2005

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, "Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths," Phys. Rev. A 70,013411110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extremeultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and L.F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 65,03140614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.G. Muller, "Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions," Appl. Phys. B 74,S17-S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane and H. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the "singlecycle" regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. V´eniard, R. Taieb, and A. Maquet,"Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N > 1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 54,721-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond pulse trains using highorder harmonics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52,4747-4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini and L.F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antoine, P.

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond pulse trains using highorder harmonics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augé, F.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonora, S.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extremeultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carre, B.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I.P.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane and H. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the "singlecycle" regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.B.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfin, C.

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L.F.

P. Agostini and L.F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M.B.

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 65,03140614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiosi, D.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, E.A.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobert, O.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E.M.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.Y.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.Yu.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, A.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane and H. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the "singlecycle" regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.C.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopold, R.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K.C.

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond pulse trains using highorder harmonics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52,4747-4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Déroff, L.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Antoine, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, "Attosecond pulse trains using highorder harmonics,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1234-1237 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52,4747-4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P.B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49,2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynga, C.

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maquet, A.

V. V´eniard, R. Taieb, and A. Maquet,"Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N > 1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 54,721-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauritsson, J.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H.G.

H.G. Muller, "Reconstruction of attosecond harmonic beating by interference of two-photon transitions," Appl. Phys. B 74,S17-S21 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M.M.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.P. Christov, M.M. Murnane and H. Kapteyn, "High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the "singlecycle" regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78,1251-1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, "Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths," Phys. Rev. A 70,013411110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norin, J.

A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N.A.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extremeultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, P.M.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdrix, M.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinault, S.C.

Poletto, L.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extremeultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Potasek, M.J.

Quéré, F.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, O. Gobert, P. Breger, H. Merdji, P. Meynadier, P. Monchicourt, M. Perdrix, P. Salières, and B. Carre, "High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94,17390314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, "Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 52,4747-4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, A. L’Huillier and M. Lewenstein, "Coherence Control of High-Order Harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74,3776-3779 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, "Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths," Phys. Rev. A 70,013411110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.J.

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Quantum path distributions for high-order harmonics in rare gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 65,03140614 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M.B. Gaarde and K.J. Schafer, "Space-time considerations in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K.J. Schafer, K.C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, "Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components," Phys. Rev. A 59,1367-1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, "Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths," Phys. Rev. A 70,013411110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taieb, R.

V. V´eniard, R. Taieb, and A. Maquet,"Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N > 1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 54,721-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobey, R.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E.S.

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsakiris, G.D.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tzallas, P.

P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V´eniard, V.

V. V´eniard, R. Taieb, and A. Maquet,"Phase dependence of (N+1)-color (N > 1) ir-uv photoionization of atoms with higher harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 54,721-728 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, "Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extremeultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75,4413-4418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, and M. Nisoli, "Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths," Phys. Rev. A 70,013411110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, N.

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
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A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
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P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
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E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
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Yudin, G.L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
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A. L’Huillier, D. Descamps, A. Johansson, J. Norin, J. Mauritsson, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Applications of highorder harmonics," Eur. Phys. J. D 26,91-98 (2003).
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R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427,817-821 (2004).
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P. Tzallas, D. Charalambidis, N.A. Papadogiannis, K. Witte, and G.D. Tsakiris, "Direct observation of attosecond light bunching," Nature (London) 426, 267-271 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. A

C. Lynga, M.B. Gaarde, C. Delfin, M. Bellini, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlstr¨om, "Temporal coherence of high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 60,4823-4830 (1999).
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M. Bellini, C. Lynga, A. Tozzi, M.B. Gaarde, T.W. H¨ansch, A. L’Huillier, and C.-G. Wahlström, "Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,297-300 (1998).
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J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G.L. Yudin, M.Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P.B. Corkum, "Attosecond streak camera," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,17390314 (2002).
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Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. Agostini and L.F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67,813-855 (2004).
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Science

E.A. Gibson, A. Paul, N. Wagner, R. Tobey, D. Gaudiosi, S. Backus, I.P. Christov, A. Aquila, E.M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, M.M. Murnane, and H.C. Kapteyn, "Coherent soft X-ray generation in the water window with quasi-phase matching," Science 302,95-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305,1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.M. Paul, E.S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Augé, Ph. Balcou, H.G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation," Science 292,1689-1692 (2001).
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P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D.B. Milo¡sevi´c, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, "Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions," Science 292,902-905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, J-P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, "Measurement of Harmonic Phase Differences by Interference of Attosecond Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193903-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured evolution of the spectral characteristics of the 19-th harmonic generated in Argon by 30-fs pulses as a function of the driving pulse intensity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized spectral profiles of 19-th harmonic generated in Argon by the long (a) and short (b) quantum paths for two intensity values: I≈1.2 × 1014 W/cm2 (solid lines), I≈1.8 × 1014 W/cm2 (dashed lines).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

rms bandwidth of the 19-th harmonic normalized to the fundamental angular frequency (ω 0 as a function of the peak intensity of the driving pulses. The dots with error bars are the experimental values. The dashed curve was calculated using the nonadiabatic saddle-point method. Pulse duration T 0 = 30 fs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Chirp coefficients α associated to the long and short quantum paths contributing to the 19-th harmonic, as a function of the pulse peak intensity. The symbols with error bars have been obtained using the data reported in Fig. 3 and Eq. 4. The triangles have been calculated assuming a constant duration of the harmonic pulses, τq = τ 0/2; the dots have been obtained using the harmonic duration calculated using the NASP method. The dashed curve has been calculated using the NASP method, as described in the text. Pulse duration T 0 = 30 fs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Chirp coefficients α associated to the long and short quantum paths, as a function of the harmonic order. The symbols with error bars have been obtained using the measured harmonic bandwidths and Eq. 4. The triangles have been calculated assuming a constant duration of the harmonic pulses, τq = τ 0/2; the dots have been obtained using the harmonic duration calculated using the NASP method. The squares and open circles are the chirp coefficients for the long and short paths, respectively, calculated using the NASP method, as described in the text. Pulse duration T 0 = 30 fs; peak intensity of the driving pulse I 0 = 1.54 × 1014 W/cm2.

Equations (5)

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x ( ω ) = s long x s ( ω ) exp [ i Ψ s ( ω ) ] ,
E q ( t ) = E q 0 exp ( t 2 τ q 2 ) exp ( I 0 e 2 t 2 τ 0 2 ) ,
( Δω ) 2 = E q ( t ) 2 dt E q ( t ) 2 dt + [ E q ( t ) E q * ( t ) dt E q ( t ) 2 dt ] 2 ,
( Δ ω ) 2 = 1 τ q 2 [ 1 + 4 α 2 I 0 2 δ ( δ 2 + 2 ) 3 2 ] ,
b q = 4 α q I 0 τ 0 2 .

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