Abstract

We explore nine different combinations of fluorescence, light scattering, and polarization spectral imaging approaches in the near-infrared spectral region toward the diagnosis of pathologic and normal esophageal lesions. The combinations of all the imaging techniques were evaluated for maximal sensitivity and specificity. The results suggest that this multimodal approach is capable of highly accurate detection of the presence of pathologic tissue.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2005, Atlanta: American Cancer Society (2005).
  2. M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  6. C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  10. Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
    [PubMed]

2005

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

2000

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, H.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, R.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bold, R.

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bown, S. G.

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, F.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipolloni, P. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T. J.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Duan, X. Y

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ebert, B.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Edwards, D.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, H.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gandour-Edwards, R.

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geboes, K.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haensch, W. E.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Haggitt, R.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Handke, T.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Izuishi, K.

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, C.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerer, L. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. B.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lovat, L. B.

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcon, N. E.

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Moesta, M. T.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Muller, M. G.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, D.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Novelli, M.

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, C.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ollero, M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Overholt, B.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandey, R. K.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Panjehpour, M.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, D. C.

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramsamooj, R.

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Ripley, P. M.

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, P. M.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Seiler, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J. S.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S. J.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, M. G.

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Song, L. M.

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Stone, N.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. J.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, E.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vo-Dinh, T.

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Warren, B.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weng, S. F.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

White, R. D.

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Wu, J. G.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Xu, Y. Z.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yang, L. M.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yoshida, S.

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M. M.

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. F.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Res.

M. T. Moesta, B. Ebert, T. Handke, D. Nolte, C. Nowak, W. E. Haensch, R. K. Pandey, T. J. Dougherty, H. Rinneberg, P. M. Schlag, "Protoporphyrin IX occurs naturally in colorectal cancers and their metastases," Cancer Res. 61, 991-999 (2001)
[PubMed]

Clin. Chem.

Q. B. Li, X. J. Sun, Y. Z. Xu, L. M. Yang, Y. F. Zhang, S. F. Weng, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, "Diagnosis of gastric inflammation and malignancy in Endoscopic biopsies based on Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy," Clin. Chem. 51, 346-350 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dig. Endosc.

H. Tajiri, M. Kobayashi, K. Izuishi, and S. Yoshida, "Fluorescence endoscopy in the gastrointestinal tract," Dig. Endosc. 12, S28-S31 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Muller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 120, 1620-1629 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. Overholt, T. Vo-Dinh, R. Haggitt, D. Edwards, and F. Buckley, "Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus," Gastroenterology 111, 93-101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. G. Demos, R. Bold, R. D. White, and R. Ramsamooj, "Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 791-798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Fang, M. Ollero, E. Vitkin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. M. Zaman, S. D. Freedman, I. J. Bigio, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, L. T. Perelman, "Noninvasive sizing of subcellular organelles with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 267-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. G. Demos, R. Gandour-Edwards, R. Ramsamooj, and R. D. White, "Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 587-592 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pathol.

C. Kendall, N. Stone, N. Shepherd, K. Geboes, B. Warren, R. Bennett, and H. Barr, "Raman spectroscopy, a potential tool for the objective identification and classification of neoplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," J. Pathol. 200, 602-609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 1245-1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

M. G. Shim, L. M. Song, N. E. Marcon, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146-150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: A new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. C. Pickard, I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, L. B. Lovat, P. M. Ripley, M. Novelli, "Optical biopsy for the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus," in Optical Biopsy IV, R. R. Alfono ed., Proc. SPIE 4613, 234-243, (2002).
[CrossRef]

World J. Gastroenterol.

J. S. Wang, J. S. Shi, Y. Z. Xu, X. Y Duan, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. M. Yang, S. F. Weng, and J. G. Wu, "FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of normal and cancerous tissues of esophagus," World J. Gastroenterol. 9, 1897-1899 (2003).
[PubMed]

Other

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2005, Atlanta: American Cancer Society (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of imaging system. Illumination is provided by compact laser sources at 408, 532, and 633 nm and a broadband light source that is wavelength-filtered by a filter wheel (FW) containing bandpass filters at 700, 850, and 1000 nm before being transmitted through a fiber bundle (FB) and polarizer. The collected light passes through an analyzing and a 700 nm longpass filter (LP) before being imaged onto a cooled CCD detector via a camera lens (CL).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Representative images of esophageal biopsy specimens acquired via nine different imaging modalities. Fluorescence images were acquired using excitation at (A) 408 nm, (B) 532 nm, and (C) 633 nm. Light scattering images were acquired using illumination at 700 nm via (D) parallel- and (E) cross-polarized scattering, 850 nm via (F) parallel- and (G) cross-polarized scattering, and 1000 nm via (H) parallel- and (I) cross-polarized scattering. Biopsy set on the left half of these specific images is pathologically normal (sample #15), and the set on the right is adenocarcinoma (sample #35).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Representative degree-of-polarization (DOP) images mathematically constructed from the polarization difference to polarization sum ratios at (A) 700 nm, (B) 850 nm, and (C) 1000 nm shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of raw image intensities from each biopsy set as a function of imaging modality. Intensities were normalized to maximum and minimum for each respective imaging modality. Labels correspond to excitation/illumination wavelength (in nm) and imaging technique: (F) fluorescence, (∥) parallel-polarized light scattering, (+) cross-polarized light scattering, and (D) degree-of-polarization. A general trend of higher intensities among the high-risk samples is evident in most of the imaging modalities, but none of the individual modalities provide a clear differentiation of the two risk classes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plot of output scores from the logistic discriminant algorithm for all of the 40 biopsy sets studied. Scores correspond to the probability of high-risk classification, with those scoring above 0.5 classified as high risk and those scoring below 0.5 classified as low risk. Arrows indicate the three misclassified samples: one pathologically normal sample scored at 0.89, one adenocarcinoma and one high-grade dysplasia scored very near zero.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pathologies of all the biopsy sets included in the study, with designated (a priori) risk category, and the predicted risk category as determined by logistic discriminant analysis of the combination of background-corrected mean intensities from the 1000 nm parallel- and cross-polarized, 633 nm fluorescence, 850 nm cross-polarized, and 700 nm degree-of-polarization images.

Metrics