Abstract

An orientational grating with reduced scattering noise is formed in fullerene-doped and undoped homeotropic nematic liquid crystal cells by simultaneous application of both spatially modulated light and ac electric field. The first-order diffraction efficiency obtained in the fullerene-doped cell reaches ~30 %, approaching the maximum value predicted by theory. Effective nonlinear index coefficient is ~0.9 cm2/W and ~1000 times larger than previous observations in C60-doped nematic liquid crystals using a dc field. Grating formation time can be as short as 1 s, which is ~100 times shorter than those found by us using a dc field and previous studies.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer, Berlin, 1989), vols. 1 and 2.
  2. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  3. I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, "Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. V. Rudenko, and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal," JETP. Lett. 59, 142 (1994).
  5. G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Lee and C. S. Chiu, "Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt Lett. 26, 521 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Lee and Y. L. Wang, "Voltage-dependent orientational photorefractivity in a planar C60 doped nematic film," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 850 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinary large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).
  13. M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Wang, "Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers," Nature 356, 585 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. C. Khoo, "Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Helfrich, "Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee and Y. L. Wang, "Voltage-dependent orientational photorefractivity in a planar C60 doped nematic film," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Lee and C. S. Chiu, "Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt Lett. 26, 521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Y. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. C. Khoo, "Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. V. Rudenko, and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal," JETP. Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, "Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

Y. Wang, "Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers," Nature 356, 585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1969

W. Helfrich, "Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, C. S.

W. Lee and C. S. Chiu, "Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt Lett. 26, 521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cudney, R. S.

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Francescangell, O.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinary large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, "Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinary large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, "Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, "Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.

W. Lee and Y. L. Wang, "Voltage-dependent orientational photorefractivity in a planar C60 doped nematic film," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee and C. S. Chiu, "Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt Lett. 26, 521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Lucchetti, L.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

Reshetnyak, V.

Reznikov, Y.

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko, and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal," JETP. Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

Shih, M. Y.

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinary large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Slussarenko, S.

Slussarenko, S. S.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko, and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal," JETP. Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

Tatarkova, S. A.

M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, "Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers," Nature 356, 585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

W. Lee and Y. L. Wang, "Voltage-dependent orientational photorefractivity in a planar C60 doped nematic film," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. V. Wood, M. Y. Shih, and P. H. Chen, "Extremely nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image sensing and sensor protection," Opt. Express 4, 432 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-4-11-432.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Kaczmarek, M. Y. Shih, R. S. Cudney, and I. C. Khoo, "Electrically tunable, optically induced dynamic gratings in dye doped liquid crystals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Q. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. Helfrich, "Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations," J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

W. Lee and Y. L. Wang, "Voltage-dependent orientational photorefractivity in a planar C60 doped nematic film," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 850 (2002).
[CrossRef]

JETP. Lett.

E. V. Rudenko, and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal," JETP. Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

Nature

Y. Wang, "Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers," Nature 356, 585 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

M. Kaczmarek, R. S. Cudney, and S. A. Tatarkova, "Electric field control of diffraction and noise in dye-doped liquid crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 27, 331 (2001).

Opt Lett.

W. Lee and C. S. Chiu, "Observation of self-diffraction by gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt Lett. 26, 521 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangell, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Gunter and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer, Berlin, 1989), vols. 1 and 2.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental geometry. Writing beams, s-polarized Ar-ion 515 nm laser line; probe beam, p-polarized He-Ne 633 nm laser line.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dynamics of two-beam coupling with V pp = 10 V, and f = 50 Hz. Upper curve, the beam that gains energy; lower curve, the beam that loses energy; middle curve, the half of the sum of intensities of the two beams.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diffraction pattern with P t = 5.4 mW, (a) f = 40 Hz, V pp = 15 V; (b) V dc = 2.0 V. The numbers indicate the orders of the diffracted spots with the transmitted incident probe beam being labeled 0.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of first-order diffraction efficiency under applied ac and dc fields with P t = 5.4 mW. V ac , V pp = 20 V, and f = 100 Hz; V dc = 2 V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

First-order diffraction efficiency versus V pp at various frequencies.

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