Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a self-adaptive compensation of the pump power dependent thermal lens in an Nd:YAG laser through a thin layer of a medium with a negative temperature dependence of the refractive index. The layer is thermally coupled to the laser rod and leads to a strikingly improved beam quality over a large stability range. The scheme allows for a scaling to high powers as well as pulsed-mode operation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.D. Foster and L.M. Osternink, “Thermal Effects in a Nd:YAG Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, (Springer, Berlin, 1999).
  3. N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Optical Resonators, (Springer, Berlin, 1997).
  4. H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U.J. Greiner and H.H. Klingenberg, “Thermal lens correction of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser of high TEM00 power by an adjustable-curvature mirror,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1207–1209 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A.V. Kudryashov, “Intracavity laser beam control,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 32–41 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Koch, “Self-adaptive optical elements for compensation of thermal lensing effects in diode end-pumped solid state lasers - proposal and preliminary experiments,” Opt. Commun. 140, 158–164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.
  13. M. S. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber, “Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1665–1667 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.

2000 (1)

R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A.V. Kudryashov, “Intracavity laser beam control,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 32–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Koch, “Self-adaptive optical elements for compensation of thermal lensing effects in diode end-pumped solid state lasers - proposal and preliminary experiments,” Opt. Commun. 140, 158–164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1981 (1)

D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J.D. Foster and L.M. Osternink, “Thermal Effects in a Nd:YAG Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Foster, J.D.

J.D. Foster and L.M. Osternink, “Thermal Effects in a Nd:YAG Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Glur, H.

M. S. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber, “Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1665–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.

R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, U.J.

Hanna, D.C.

D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hodgson, N.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Optical Resonators, (Springer, Berlin, 1997).

Jackel, S.

S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klingenberg, H.H.

Koch, R.

R. Koch, “Self-adaptive optical elements for compensation of thermal lensing effects in diode end-pumped solid state lasers - proposal and preliminary experiments,” Opt. Commun. 140, 158–164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

Kudryashov, A.V.

A.V. Kudryashov, “Intracavity laser beam control,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 32–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lavi, R.

H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, I.

S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osternink, L.M.

J.D. Foster and L.M. Osternink, “Thermal Effects in a Nd:YAG Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M. S.

Roth, M.S.

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawyers, C.G.

D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Optical Resonators, (Springer, Berlin, 1997).

Weber, H.P.

M. S. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber, “Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1665–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.

R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, E.

M. S. Roth, E. Wyss, H. Glur, and H.P. Weber, “Generation of radially polarized beams in a Nd:YAG laser with self-adaptive overcompensation of the thermal lens,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1665–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.

Yuratich, M.A.

D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

H. Glur, R. Lavi, and T. Graf, “Reduction of thermally induced lenses in Nd:YAG with low temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 499–504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Self-Adjusting Compensating Thermal Lens to Balance the Thermally Induced Lens in Solid-State Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 757–764 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Wyss, M.S. Roth, T. Graf, and H.P. Weber, “Thermo-optical compensation methods for high-power lasers”, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1620–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

in Advanced Solid-State Lasers (1)

T. Graf, E. Wyss, and H.P. Weber, “Self-adaptive compensation for the thermal lens in high-power lasers,”in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Ch. Marshall, ed., Vol.  50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2001), pp. 688–692.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.D. Foster and L.M. Osternink, “Thermal Effects in a Nd:YAG Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656–3663 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Koch, “Self-adaptive optical elements for compensation of thermal lensing effects in diode end-pumped solid state lasers - proposal and preliminary experiments,” Opt. Commun. 140, 158–164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D.C. Hanna, C.G. Sawyers, and M.A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00 mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493–507 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A.V. Kudryashov, “Intracavity laser beam control,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 32–41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jackel, I. Moshe, and R. Lavi, “High performance oscillators employing adaptive optics comprised of discrete elements,” in Laser Resonators II. 1999 San Jose, A.V. Kudryashov, ed., Proc. SPIE 3611, 42–49 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

N. Hodgson and H. Weber, Optical Resonators, (Springer, Berlin, 1997).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Laser resonator with a self-adaptive compensating element. A thin layer of a liquid (L) is sandwiched in between two glass rods (GR) placed in a cooling mount (CM).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TOSCA:(a) side view and (b) front view of the laser head. (c) Image of the laser head (the arrow marks the position of the compensating gel disk).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measuring output power (PM), beam quality (CCD 1), and thermal lens (CCD 2) for three configurations: (a) single-head, cw; (b) dual-head, cw; (c) single-head, Q-switched

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Output versus pump power of the single-head resonator with and without compensation. Interferograms (b) without and (c) with compensation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Output power versus pump power and (b) M 2 versus output power of the single-head resonator with and without compensation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Scaling of the output power through multiple but compensated laser heads. (a) Output power and (b) M2.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Output power versus pump power and (b) M2 versus output power of the single-head resonator in cw and pulsed operation.

Equations (1)

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Δ P = ( 2 M 2 1 ) 4 λ D *

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