Abstract

We report on the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of fs-laser written waveguides in fused silica by analyzing self-phase modulation of the propagating light. The nonlinear index is reduced considerably compared to the bulk material by the writing process and is furthermore highly dependant on processing parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys A 77, 109–111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2491–2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2626–2628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, L. Canioni, A. Brocas, and L. Sarger, “Optical properties of IR femtosecond laser-modified fused silica and application to waveguide fabrication,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2138 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica,” Opt. Express 13, 10552–10557 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-26-10552
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Eugenieva, N. Efremidis, and D. Christodulides, “Design of switching junctions for two-dimensional discrete soliton networks,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1978–1980 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borelli, “Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496–2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

2006 (1)

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2491–2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

Asano, T.

Blömer, D.

Borelli, N. F.

Brocas, A.

Burghoff, J.

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Cerullo, G.

Chiodo, N.

Christodulides, D.

Davis, K.

Della Valle, G.

Efremidis, N.

Eugenieva, E.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Killi, A.

Kopf, D.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, F.

Lederer, M.

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

Osellame, R.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, U.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Sarger, L.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

Szameit, A.

Taccheo, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica,” Opt. Lett. 29, 468–470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys A 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, “An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 423–428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the writing process in transparent bulk material using fs-laser pulses

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Near-field profile at λ=800 nm for a waveguide written at 500 μm/s and (b) corresponding refractive index profile

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of (a) the refractive index change and (b) the waveguide losses on the writing velocity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between measured (a), (c) and (e) and corresponding simulated (b), (d) and (f) spectra after propagation through a waveguide

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the nonlinear refractive index on writing velocity

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 x y = n eff 2 λ 2 4 π 2 Δ A x y A x y
A z + α 2 A + i β 2 2 2 A T 2 = i γ ( A 2 A + i ω T ( A 2 A ) T R A A 2 T ) .
γ = ω c n 2 A eff ,
n 2 eff = dxdyI x y n 2 x y dxdyI x y ,

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