Abstract

We report on the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of fs-laser written waveguides in fused silica by analyzing self-phase modulation of the propagating light. The nonlinear index is reduced considerably compared to the bulk material by the writing process and is furthermore highly dependant on processing parameters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser," Opt. Lett. 21,1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A 77,109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada K. Itoh and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28,2491-2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29,468-470 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte and A. Tünnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29,2626-2628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, L. Canioni, A. Brocas and L. Sarger, "Optical properties of IR femtosecond laser-modified fused silica and application to waveguide fabrication," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2138 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann and F. Lederer, "Discrete nonlinear localization in femtosecond laser written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 13,10552-10557 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-26-10552
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Eugenieva, N. Efremidis and D. Christodulides, "Design of switching junctions for two-dimensional discrete soliton networks," Opt. Lett. 26,1978-1980 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, "An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,423-428 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. M. Streltsov, and N. F. Borelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,2496-2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A 77,109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada K. Itoh and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28,2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser," Opt. Lett. 21,1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, "An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,423-428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Blömer, D.

Borelli, N. F.

Brocas, A.

Burghoff, J.

Caccavale, F.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, "An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,423-428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Cerullo, G.

Chiodo, N.

Christodulides, D.

Davis, K.

Della Valle, G.

Efremidis, N.

Eugenieva, E.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser," Opt. Lett. 21,1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

Kopf, D.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, F.

Lederer, M.

Mansour, I.

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, "An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,423-428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a fs-laser," Opt. Lett. 21,1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Nolte, S.

Osellame, R.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, U.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Sarger, L.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

Szameit, A.

Taccheo, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29,468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A 77,109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing a new avenue to threedimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys A 77,109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71,3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

I. Mansour and F. Caccavale, "An improved procedure to calculate the refractive index profile from the measured near-field intensity," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,423-428 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

A. Szameit, D. Blömer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte and A. Tünnermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the writing process in transparent bulk material using fs-laser pulses

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Near-field profile at λ=800 nm for a waveguide written at 500 μm/s and (b) corresponding refractive index profile

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of (a) the refractive index change and (b) the waveguide losses on the writing velocity

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between measured (a), (c) and (e) and corresponding simulated (b), (d) and (f) spectra after propagation through a waveguide

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dependence of the nonlinear refractive index on writing velocity

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 x y = n eff 2 λ 2 4 π 2 Δ A x y A x y
A z + α 2 A + i β 2 2 2 A T 2 = i γ ( A 2 A + i ω T ( A 2 A ) T R A A 2 T ) .
γ = ω c n 2 A eff ,
n 2 eff = dxdyI x y n 2 x y dxdyI x y ,

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