Abstract

The controlled creation of nanometric electromagnetic field confinement via surface plasmon polariton excitations in metal/insulator/metal heterostructures is described via the concept of an effective electromagnetic mode volume Veff. Extensively used for the description of dielectric microcavities, its extension to plasmonics provides a convenient figure of merit and allows comparisons with dielectric counterparts. Using a one-dimensional analytical model and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations, it is shown that plasmonic cavities with nanometric dielectric gaps indeed allow for physical as well as effective mode volumes well below the diffraction limit in the gap material, despite significant energy penetration into the metal. In this picture, matter-plasmon interactions can be quantified in terms of quality factor Q and Veff, enabling a resonant cavity description of surface enhanced Raman scattering.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy inmetal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2002).

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Vu¡cković, M. Lon¡car, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, "Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory," Phys. Rev. B 60, 13,276 (1999).

W. L. Barnes, "Electromagnetic Crystals for Surface Plasmon Polaritons and the Extraction of Light from Emissive Devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2170-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Shubin, W. Kim, V. P. Safonov, A. K. Sarychev, R. L. Armstrong, and V. M. Shalaev, "Surface-plasmonenhanced radiation effects in confined photonic systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2183-2190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, "High-Q measurements of fusedsilica microspheres in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 23, 247-249 (1998).

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, "Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter," Opt. Lett. 22, 475 (1997).

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Norris, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and W. E. Moerner, "Excitation of a single molecule on the surface of a spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 297-299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1983

1980

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. Loudon, "The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric," J. Phys. A 3, 233-245 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1946

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Achermann, M.

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R.W.

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, "Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory," Phys. Rev. B 60, 13,276 (1999).

Apell, P.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy inmetal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Barnes, W. L.

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Chew, H.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2002).

Ebbesen, T.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2002).

Emery, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Gérard, J.-M.

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, "Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory," Phys. Rev. B 60, 13,276 (1999).

Grosse, S.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, "High-Q measurements of fusedsilica microspheres in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 23, 247-249 (1998).

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kaell, M.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

Kimble, H. J.

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

D. J. Norris, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and W. E. Moerner, "Excitation of a single molecule on the surface of a spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 297-299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, I. A.

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letargat, R. J.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, "The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric," J. Phys. A 3, 233-245 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy inmetal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Moerner, W. E.

D. J. Norris, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and W. E. Moerner, "Excitation of a single molecule on the surface of a spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 297-299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S. M.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

D. J. Norris, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and W. E. Moerner, "Excitation of a single molecule on the surface of a spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 297-299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Panzarini, G.

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, "Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory," Phys. Rev. B 60, 13,276 (1999).

Pearton, S. J.

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perner, M.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, V. P.

Sarychev, A. K.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shubin, V. A.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Streed, E. W.

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vernooy, D. W.

Vinet, J. Y.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.-S.

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, S.

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Norris, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and W. E. Moerner, "Excitation of a single molecule on the surface of a spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 297-299 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. F. J. Levi, S. L. McCall, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Room Temperature Operation of Submicrometre Radius Disk Laser," Electron. Lett. 29, 1666-1667 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Vu¡cković, M. Lon¡car, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy inmetal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, R. J. Letargat, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "On cavity modification of stimulated Raman scattering," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 272-278 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A

R. Loudon, "The propagation of electromagnetic energy through an absorbing dielectric," J. Phys. A 3, 233-245 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mat.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mat. 2, 229-232 (2003).

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2002).

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip," Nature 421, 925-928 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, "Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using spherical dielectric microcavity," Nature 415, 621-623 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett. A

R. Ruppin, "Electromagnetic energy density in a dispersive and absorptive material," Phys. Lett. A 299, 309-312 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B

I. A. Larkin, M. I. Stockman, M. Achermann, and V. I. Klimov, "Dipolar emitters at nanoscale proximity of metal surfaces: Giant enhancement of relaxation in microscopic theory," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121403 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gérard, "Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory," Phys. Rev. B 60, 13,276 (1999).

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, andW. E. Moerner, "Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles," Phys. Rev. B. 72, 165409 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

H. Xu, J. Aizpurua, M. Kaell, and P. Apell, "Electromagnetic contributions to single-molecule sensitivity in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. E 62, 4318-4324 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Klar, M. Perner, S. Grosse, G. von Plessen,W. Spirkl, and J. Feldmann, "Surface-plasmon resonances in single metallic nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4249-4252 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emery, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, A. Scherer, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser," Science 284, 1819-1824 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch, "Lectures on Quantum Optics" (Akademie Verlag GmbH, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, 1994).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, "Photonic Crystals" (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

H. Kimble, "Structure and Dynamics in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics," pp. 203-266 (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, eds., "Optical Processes in Microcavities" (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

E. Hinds, "Pertubative cavity quantum electrodynamics", pp. 1-56 (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).

H. A. Haus, "Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics", 1st ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 07632, 1984).

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