Abstract

We present a photonic band gap (PBG) structure (or nonlinear photonic crystal) design for terahertz (THz) wave parametric generation, whose component materials have a small refractive index difference in the near infrared and a large index difference for THz waves. The structural dispersion of such a PBG structure is strong in the THz range but negligible in the optical range. The former allows the phase-matched pump wavelength to be placed in the near infrared to eliminate two-photon absorption of the pump and signal beams. The latter leads to a crystal layer fabrication tolerances of a few micrometers and traditional polishing methods are suitable for device fabrication. The added design flexibility also allows the use of the most efficient crystal orientations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  19. .Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. .M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

.J. W. Haus., P. Powers., P. Bojja, M. Torres-Cisneros, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, N. Akozbek, and M. A. Meneses-Nava, "Enhanced tunable terahertz Generation in photonic band-gap structures," Laser Phys. 14, 635-641 (2004).

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

. G. I. Haddad and R. J. Trew, "Microwave solid-state active devices," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 760-779 (2002).
[CrossRef]

.W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius, and K. Vodopyanov, "Efficient, tunable, and coherent 0.18-5.27-THz source based on GaSe crystal," Opt. Lett. 27, 1454-1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

. B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

.A. F. Krupnov, "Phase lock-in of mm/submm backward wave oscillators: Development, evolution, and applications," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 22, 1-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

.Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Matrix analysis for layered quasi-phase-matched media considering multiple reflection and pump wave depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 162-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

.M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

. D. R. Chamberlin, E. Brundermann, and E. E. Haller, "Planar contact geometry for far-infrared germanium lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3761-3763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

.V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

.K. S. Abedin and H. Ito, "Temperature-dependent dispersion relation of ferroelectric lithium tantalate," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6561-6563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

.X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electrooptic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

. G. Chin, "Optically pumped submillimeter laser hetrodyne receivers: Astrophysical observations and recent technical developments," in Proc.IEEE 80, 1788-1799 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

.E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and Electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1059-1062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

.K. S. Abedin and H. Ito, "Temperature-dependent dispersion relation of ferroelectric lithium tantalate," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6561-6563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baudrier, M.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

.V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnenberger, R.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boulanger, B.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. R.

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brundermann, E.

. D. R. Chamberlin, E. Brundermann, and E. E. Haller, "Planar contact geometry for far-infrared germanium lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3761-3763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Cabirol, X.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J. P.

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Centini, M.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cha, H. J.

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, D. R.

. D. R. Chamberlin, E. Brundermann, and E. E. Haller, "Planar contact geometry for far-infrared germanium lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3761-3763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, G.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin, G.

. G. Chin, "Optically pumped submillimeter laser hetrodyne receivers: Astrophysical observations and recent technical developments," in Proc.IEEE 80, 1788-1799 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Aguanno, G.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Erickson, N. R.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

. B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

Feve, J. P.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, J.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haddad, G. I.

. G. I. Haddad and R. J. Trew, "Microwave solid-state active devices," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 760-779 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

. D. R. Chamberlin, E. Brundermann, and E. E. Haller, "Planar contact geometry for far-infrared germanium lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3761-3763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, J. W.

.J. W. Haus., P. Powers., P. Bojja, M. Torres-Cisneros, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, N. Akozbek, and M. A. Meneses-Nava, "Enhanced tunable terahertz Generation in photonic band-gap structures," Laser Phys. 14, 635-641 (2004).

Helm, H.

.M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

.K. S. Abedin and H. Ito, "Temperature-dependent dispersion relation of ferroelectric lithium tantalate," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6561-6563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Javadi, H.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

.Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Matrix analysis for layered quasi-phase-matched media considering multiple reflection and pump wave depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 162-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y. U.

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

.X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electrooptic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kazakevitch, G. M.

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

.M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krupnov, A. F.

.A. F. Krupnov, "Phase lock-in of mm/submm backward wave oscillators: Development, evolution, and applications," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 22, 1-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kupecek, P.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

.Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Matrix analysis for layered quasi-phase-matched media considering multiple reflection and pump wave depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 162-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. C.

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lemasson, P.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lisauskas, A.

. A. Lisauskas, T. Loffler and H. G. Roskos, "Photonic terahertz technology," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, July 2005 (Special Issue: Photonic Terahertz Technology).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

. A. Lisauskas, T. Loffler and H. G. Roskos, "Photonic terahertz technology," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, July 2005 (Special Issue: Photonic Terahertz Technology).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

.X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electrooptic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maestrini, A

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maiwald, F.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Margel, G. A.

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Marnier, G.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mehdi, I.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menaert, B.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mennerat, G.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mustelier, A.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nefedov, I.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, K. B.

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasquer, C.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poulat, M.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosencher, E.

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

. A. Lisauskas, T. Loffler and H. G. Roskos, "Photonic terahertz technology," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, July 2005 (Special Issue: Photonic Terahertz Technology).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. W.

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarger, L.

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

.M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlecht, E.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Sibilia, C.

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, P. H.

. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniuchi, T.

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trew, R. J.

. G. I. Haddad and R. J. Trew, "Microwave solid-state active devices," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 760-779 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K.

Ward, J.

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

.E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and Electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1059-1062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

.P. Yeh, "Optics of anisotropic layered media: A new 4×4 matrix algebra," Surf. Science 96, 41 53 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yuri, A.

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

. B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

.X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electrooptic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J. J.

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

.A. Mustelier, E. Rosencher, P. Kupecek, A. Godard, M. Baudrier, M. Lefebvre, M. Poulat, G. Mennerat, C. Pasquer, and P. Lemasson, "Midinfrared difference frequency generation in quasi-phase matched diffusion bonded ZnSe plates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4424-4426 (2004).
[CrossRef]

.Y. Sasaki, A. Yuri, K. Kawase, and H. Ito, "Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference frequency generation in slant-stripe-type periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3323-3325 (2002).
[CrossRef]

. D. R. Chamberlin, E. Brundermann, and E. E. Haller, "Planar contact geometry for far-infrared germanium lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3761-3763 (1999).
[CrossRef]

.E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8-THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).
[CrossRef]

.X. C. Zhang, Y. Jin, and X. F. Ma, "Coherent measurement of THz optical rectification from electrooptic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2764-2766 (1992).
[CrossRef]

.K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE (1)

. G. Chin, "Optically pumped submillimeter laser hetrodyne receivers: Astrophysical observations and recent technical developments," in Proc.IEEE 80, 1788-1799 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

.M. M. Fejer, G. A. Margel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi phasematched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654, 1992.
[CrossRef]

.Y. Jeong and B. Lee, "Matrix analysis for layered quasi-phase-matched media considering multiple reflection and pump wave depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 162-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

.A Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, and I. Mehdi, "A 1.7-1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

. G. I. Haddad and R. J. Trew, "Microwave solid-state active devices," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 760-779 (2002).
[CrossRef]

. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves (2)

.A. F. Krupnov, "Phase lock-in of mm/submm backward wave oscillators: Development, evolution, and applications," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 22, 1-18 (2001).
[CrossRef]

.M. Schall, H. Helm, and S. R. Keiding, "Far infrared properties of electro-optic crystals measured by THz time-domain spectroscopy," Int. J. of Infrared and Millim. Waves 20, 595-604 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

.K. S. Abedin and H. Ito, "Temperature-dependent dispersion relation of ferroelectric lithium tantalate," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6561-6563 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

.J. W. Haus., P. Powers., P. Bojja, M. Torres-Cisneros, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, N. Akozbek, and M. A. Meneses-Nava, "Enhanced tunable terahertz Generation in photonic band-gap structures," Laser Phys. 14, 635-641 (2004).

Nat. Mater. (1)

. B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A (1)

. Y. U. Jeong, G. M. Kazakevitch, H. J. Cha, S. H. Park, and B. C. Lee, "Application of a wide-band compact FEL on THz imaging," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A 543, 90-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

.J. P. Feve, J. J. Zondy, B. Boulanger, R. Bonnenberger, X. Cabirol, B. Menaert, and G. Marnier, "Optimized blue light generation in optically contacted walk-off compensated RbTiOAsO4 and KTiOP1-yAsyO4," Opt. Commun. 161, 359-369 (1999).
[CrossRef]

.P. Mounaix, L. Sarger, J. P. Caumes, and E. Freysz, "Characterization of non-linear Potassium crystals in the Terahertz frequency domain," Opt. Commun. 242, 631-639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

.M. Centini, C. Sibilia, M. Scalora, G. D'Aguanno, M. Bertolotti, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, and I. Nefedov, "Dispersive properties of finite, one-dimensional photonic band gap structures: Applications to nonlinear quadratic interactions," Phys. Rev. E 60, 4891-4898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

.E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and Electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1059-1062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

.V. Berger, "Nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. lett. 81, 4136-4139 (1998).
[CrossRef]

.N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, "Hexagonally poled lithium niobate: A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345-4348 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum Cascade Laser," Science 264, 553-555 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

. A. Lisauskas, T. Loffler and H. G. Roskos, "Photonic terahertz technology," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, July 2005 (Special Issue: Photonic Terahertz Technology).
[CrossRef]

.M. Cronin-Golomb, L. Zhang, J. Zhao, and J. J. Foshee, "Terahertz wave generation by photonic bandgap materials," in Terahertz Gigahertz Electronics and Photonics III, R. J. Hwu, ed., Proc. SPIE 5354, 10-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

.P. Yeh, "Optics of anisotropic layered media: A new 4×4 matrix algebra," Surf. Science 96, 41 53 (1980).
[CrossRef]

.J. C. Wiltse, "Introduction and overview of millimeter waves," in Infrared and Millimeter Waves, K. J. Button, ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), Vol. 4, Chap. 1.

.Michael Bass, Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., (McGRAW-Hill, New York, 1995), Vol. II, Chap 33.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effective refractive index and average refractive index of the PBG device (a) below 0.5-THz (solid line: neff (λ) and dash line: n¯(λ) ) and (b) in the 1.55-μm range for o-beam (solid line: neff (λ) and open circle points: n¯(λ)) and e-beam (solid line: neff (λ); open square points: n¯(λ)).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity transmission of PBG device with 20 layers of 116μm LiTaO3 crystals and 20 layers 256 μm ZnSe spacers at (a) 0.2-THz range and (b) 1.55 μm range of o-beam and (c) 1.55 μm range of e-beam. The PBG device is sandwiched by two ZnSe crystals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Coherence length of the half-wave/ half-wave PBG device with (a) 20 layers 116-μm LiTaO3 crystal and 20 layers 256 μm ZnSe crystals (reference wavelength 1500μm) and pumped by the wavelengths in the range of near IR.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The numerical THz difference frequency generation photon conversion efficiencies of the PBG device pumped by two near infrared laser pulses of 10-ns and 1 mJ/pulse in the range of 1μm (or 300THz) to 2μm (or 150 THz).

Equations (5)

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Δ k = 2 π ( n ( λ p ) λ p n ( λ s ) λ s n ( λ T ) λ T )
Δϕ ¯ = m ( L 1 Δ k 1 + L 2 Δ k 2 )
Δ k ¯ = Δϕ ¯ m ( L 1 + L 2 ) = 2 π ( n ¯ ( λ p ) λ p n ¯ ( λ s ) λ s n ¯ ( λ T ) λ T )
Δ k eff = 2 π [ n eff ( λ p ) λ p n eff ( λ s ) λ s n eff ( λ T ) λ T ]
2 π Δ n ( λ T ) λ T 2 π n eff ( λ T ) n ¯ ( λ T ) λ T = Δ k ¯

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