Abstract

Blue frequency-upconversion fluorescence emission has been observed in Ce3+-doped Gd2SiO5 single crystals, pumped with 120-fs 800 nm IR laser pulses. The observed fluorescence emission peaks at about 440nm is due to 5d→4f transition of Ce3+ ions. The intensity dependence of the blue fluorescence emission on the IR excitation laser power obeys the cubic law, demonstrating three-photon absorption process. Analysis suggested that three-photon simultaneous absorption induced population inversion should be the predominant frequency upconversion mechanism.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, "Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106-051108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. You and M. Nogami, "Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-3434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Upconversion luminescence of Er3 + in alkali bismuth gallate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao,"Photostimulated luminescence of Ce3 + -doped alkali borate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 43-45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22,132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22,1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273,1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Davey, E. Bourdin, F. Henari, and W. Blau, "Three photon induced fluorescence from a conjugated organic polymer for infrared frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 884-885 (1995)
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, Z. Cheng, Q. Ping, and X. Hou, "Three-photon photoemission from GaAs-O-Cs negative electron affinity surfaces induced by 2.06 µm nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 91-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, "Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy," Laser Surg. Med. 17,2-31 (1995)
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, Z. Liu, and Y. Segawa, "Ultraviolet subnanosecond pulse train generation from an all-solid-state Ce:LiCAF laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 602-604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, "Photouminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation," Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17,299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248,73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, and W. E. Case, "Photon avalanche upconversion laser at 644 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083-1085 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, D. D. Edden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3 + in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410-412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bewersdorf, J.

Bielska, B.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

A. P. Davey, E. Bourdin, F. Henari, and W. Blau, "Three photon induced fluorescence from a conjugated organic polymer for infrared frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 884-885 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17,299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bourdelle, P.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourdin, E.

A. P. Davey, E. Bourdin, F. Henari, and W. Blau, "Three photon induced fluorescence from a conjugated organic polymer for infrared frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 884-885 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Braun, K. L.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullen, C.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burton, J.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrne, C.

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calvilla-Quintero, J. M.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, "Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106-051108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, J. K.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Case, W. E.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, and W. E. Case, "Photon avalanche upconversion laser at 644 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083-1085 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, D. D. Edden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.-P.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

L. Wang, Z. Cheng, Q. Ping, and X. Hou, "Three-photon photoemission from GaAs-O-Cs negative electron affinity surfaces induced by 2.06 µm nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 91-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chin, R. P.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, "Photouminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation," Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chivian, J. S.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, D. D. Edden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chon, J. W. M.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Upconversion luminescence of Er3 + in alkali bismuth gallate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, D.

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

Davey, A. P.

A. P. Davey, E. Bourdin, F. Henari, and W. Blau, "Three photon induced fluorescence from a conjugated organic polymer for infrared frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 884-885 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248,73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, Y.

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, Y.-J.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273,1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edden, D. D.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, D. D. Edden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

Feindt, H.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, "Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy," Laser Surg. Med. 17,2-31 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Goh, S. C.

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, C. J.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, "Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy," Laser Surg. Med. 17,2-31 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, J. Dai, T.-C. Lin, P. P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, "Ultrashort 1.5-µm laser excited up converted stimulated emission based on simultaneous three-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 719-721 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S. W.

Henari, F.

A. P. Davey, E. Bourdin, F. Henari, and W. Blau, "Three photon induced fluorescence from a conjugated organic polymer for infrared frequency upconversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 884-885 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273,1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao,"Photostimulated luminescence of Ce3 + -doped alkali borate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 43-45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

L. Wang, Z. Cheng, Q. Ping, and X. Hou, "Three-photon photoemission from GaAs-O-Cs negative electron affinity surfaces induced by 2.06 µm nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 91-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.-Y.

Iwabuchi, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao,"Photostimulated luminescence of Ce3 + -doped alkali borate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 43-45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. R.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3 + in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410-412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. W.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kardos, K.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Kleinfeld, D.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M. E.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, and W. E. Case, "Photon avalanche upconversion laser at 644 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083-1085 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3 + in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410-412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kueny, A. W.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, and W. E. Case, "Photon avalanche upconversion laser at 644 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083-1085 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lahoz, F.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, "Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106-051108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

Li, M.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, T.-C.

Liu, X.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

N. Sarukura, Z. Liu, and Y. Segawa, "Ultraviolet subnanosecond pulse train generation from an all-solid-state Ce:LiCAF laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 602-604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273,1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Upconversion luminescence of Er3 + in alkali bismuth gallate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22,1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Markowicz, P. P.

Martin, I. R.

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, "Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106-051108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

Matsuo, S.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milunic, D.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mulvaney, P.

J. W. M. Chon, M. Gu, C. Bullen and P. Mulvaney, "Three-photon excited band edge and trap emission of CdS semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4472-4474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murphree, A. L.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, "Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy," Laser Surg. Med. 17,2-31 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Niedbala, R. S.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nogami, M.

H. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, "Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-3434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ober, C. K.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattie, R.

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22,1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrova-koch, V.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, "Photouminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation," Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pick, R.

Ping, Q.

L. Wang, Z. Cheng, Q. Ping, and X. Hou, "Three-photon photoemission from GaAs-O-Cs negative electron affinity surfaces induced by 2.06 µm nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 91-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, J. Dai, T.-C. Lin, P. P. Markowicz, and P. N. Prasad, "Ultrashort 1.5-µm laser excited up converted stimulated emission based on simultaneous three-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 28, 719-721 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, "Upconversion luminescence of Er3 + in alkali bismuth gallate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao,"Photostimulated luminescence of Ce3 + -doped alkali borate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 43-45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.-R.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raltson, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Raltson, R. Macfarlane, "A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display," Science 273,1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, Z. Liu, and Y. Segawa, "Ultraviolet subnanosecond pulse train generation from an all-solid-state Ce:LiCAF laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 602-604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, "Upconversion laser processes," Prog. Quantum Electron. 20, 271-358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

N. Sarukura, Z. Liu, and Y. Segawa, "Ultraviolet subnanosecond pulse train generation from an all-solid-state Ce:LiCAF laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 602-604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

R. P. Chin, Y. R. Shen, and V. Petrova-koch, "Photouminescence from Porous Silicon by Infrared Multiphoton Excitation," Science 270, 776-778 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shimizugawa, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao,"Photostimulated luminescence of Ce3 + -doped alkali borate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 43-45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248,73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tank, D. W.

K. Svoboda, W. Denk, D. Kleinfeld, and D. W. Tank, "In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons," Nature 385, 161-165 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutt, W.

W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17,299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vail, T.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallejo, R.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Z. Cheng, Q. Ping, and X. Hou, "Three-photon photoemission from GaAs-O-Cs negative electron affinity surfaces induced by 2.06 µm nanosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 91-93 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, S. Juodkazis, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon readout of three-dimensional memory in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 13-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248,73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, M. J.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, "Measurement of excited-state-absorption loss for Ce3 + in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 410-412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

Yang, L.

L. Yang, C. Wang, Y. Dong, N. Da, X. Hu, D. Chen, J. Qiu, "Three-photon-excited upconversionluminescence of YVO4 single crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 10157-10162 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10157.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.-Y.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, H.

H. You and M. Nogami, "Upconversion luminescence of Al2O3-SiO2:Ce3+ glass by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3432-3434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. Y.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, L.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, Y. Cui, M. Li, and P. N. Prasad, "Studies of two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing properties of a new dye material," J. Appl. Phys. 81,2529-2537 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. H.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106 -1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, C.

L.-Y. Yang, Y.-J. Dong, D.-P. Chen, C. Wang, N. Da, X. W. Jiang, C. Zhu, J.-R. Qiu, "Upconversion luminescence from 2E state of Cr3+ in Al2O3 crystal by infrared femtosecond laser irradiation," Opt. Express. 13, 7893-7898 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-20-7893.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem.

R. S. Niedbala, H. Feindt, K. Kardos, T. Vail, J. Burton, B. Bielska, S. Li, D. Milunic, P. Bourdelle, and R. Vallejo, "Detection of Analytes by Immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology," Anal. Biochem. 293,22-30 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. S. Chivian, W. E. Case, D. D. Edden, "The photon avalanche: A new phenomenon in Pr3 + -based infrared quantum counters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 124-125 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, and W. E. Case, "Photon avalanche upconversion laser at 644 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083-1085 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Goh, R. Pattie, C. Byrne, and D. Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3 + co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, and J. M. Calvilla-Quintero, "Ultraviolet and white photon avalanche upconversion in Ho3+-doped nanophase glass ceramics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051106-051108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of Ce3+:Gd2SiO5 irradiated by femtosecond laser at 800 nm (solid line) and xenon lamp at 267 nm (dashed line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Log-log plot of luminescence intensity as a function of pump power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

One-photon absorption and excitation spectrum of Ce3+:Gd2SiO5 single crystals.

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