Abstract

In this paper we report on optical pump-probe measurements on BDN-doped polycarbonate irradiated with laser pulses ranging from 25fs to 1.2ps in duration and up to fluences of 0.1 J/cm2 at 800nm wavelength. Transient change of the transmission has been measured as a function of pump-probe delay and pump fluence. Pulse duration dependent channels of saturation have been identified and the ground state repopulation (GSR) time has been determined.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, "Mode locking the Nd:Glass laser with BDN: measurements of dye recovery times and laser pulse lengths," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 59-60 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Lenner, Ch. Spielmann, "Reliability of polycarbonate filters in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 689-692 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Lenner, and Ch. Spielmann, "Protective materials for subpicosecond Ti:Sapphire lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 3532-3539 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Beaupere, and J. C. Farcy, "BDN-II as a saturable absorber for the 1.315μm iodine laser. non-linear transmission and pulse shortening effects," Opt. Commun. 27, 410-414 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Li, and K. Ogusu, "Optical nonlinearities of Bis (4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel solution in the nanosecond regime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5572-5577 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in four-level nonradiative dyes," Opt. Commun. 46, 61-63 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in BDN dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1495-1498 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).
  11. R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and K. Ferencz, "Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 1562-1564 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Lenner, Ch. Spielmann, "Reliability of polycarbonate filters in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 689-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Li, and K. Ogusu, "Optical nonlinearities of Bis (4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel solution in the nanosecond regime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5572-5577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).

1987 (1)

Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in four-level nonradiative dyes," Opt. Commun. 46, 61-63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in BDN dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1495-1498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. Beaupere, and J. C. Farcy, "BDN-II as a saturable absorber for the 1.315μm iodine laser. non-linear transmission and pulse shortening effects," Opt. Commun. 27, 410-414 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, "Mode locking the Nd:Glass laser with BDN: measurements of dye recovery times and laser pulse lengths," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 59-60 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beaupere, D.

D. Beaupere, and J. C. Farcy, "BDN-II as a saturable absorber for the 1.315μm iodine laser. non-linear transmission and pulse shortening effects," Opt. Commun. 27, 410-414 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bushaw, B. A.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Eason, R. W.

R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Farcy, J. C.

D. Beaupere, and J. C. Farcy, "BDN-II as a saturable absorber for the 1.315μm iodine laser. non-linear transmission and pulse shortening effects," Opt. Commun. 27, 410-414 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Garmire, E.

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in four-level nonradiative dyes," Opt. Commun. 46, 61-63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in BDN dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1495-1498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goodall, D. M.

R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Greenhow, R. C.

R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, "Mode locking the Nd:Glass laser with BDN: measurements of dye recovery times and laser pulse lengths," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 59-60 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. J.

Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kitao, T.

H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).

Kohtani, Y.

K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Lenner, M.

M. Lenner, and Ch. Spielmann, "Protective materials for subpicosecond Ti:Sapphire lasers," Appl. Opt. 44, 3532-3539 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lenner, Ch. Spielmann, "Reliability of polycarbonate filters in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 689-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

Li, H.

H. Li, and K. Ogusu, "Optical nonlinearities of Bis (4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel solution in the nanosecond regime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5572-5577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Magde, D.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mathies, R. A.

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakazumi, H.

H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).

Ogusu, K.

H. Li, and K. Ogusu, "Optical nonlinearities of Bis (4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel solution in the nanosecond regime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5572-5577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peteanu, L. A.

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

Schoenlein, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, H.

K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shiozaki, H.

H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Street, A. J.

R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, "Mode locking the Nd:Glass laser with BDN: measurements of dye recovery times and laser pulse lengths," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 59-60 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

von der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windsor, M. W.

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. F.

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in BDN dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1495-1498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in four-level nonradiative dyes," Opt. Commun. 46, 61-63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Single-pulse time- and fluence-resolved optical measurements at femtosecond excited surfaces," Appl. Phys. A 69, 577-579 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Lenner, Ch. Spielmann, "Reliability of polycarbonate filters in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. B 78, 689-692 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

R. C. Greenhow, D. M. Goodall, and R. W. Eason, "Ground-state repopulation time of BDN-I and BDN-II in a variety of solvent and plastic hosts," Chem. Phys. 83, 445-450 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. Magde, B. A. Bushaw, and M. W. Windsor, "Q-switching and mode locking the Nd3+-glass laser with the nickel ditienes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 394 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Greenhow, A. J. Street, "Mode locking the Nd:Glass laser with BDN: measurements of dye recovery times and laser pulse lengths," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 59-60 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in BDN dye," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1495-1498 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Li, and K. Ogusu, "Optical nonlinearities of Bis (4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel solution in the nanosecond regime," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 5572-5577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

Z. F. Zhu, and E. Garmire, "Optical bistability in four-level nonradiative dyes," Opt. Commun. 46, 61-63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaupere, and J. C. Farcy, "BDN-II as a saturable absorber for the 1.315μm iodine laser. non-linear transmission and pulse shortening effects," Opt. Commun. 27, 410-414 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, G. Z. Yang, and S. J. Gu, "Study of the Time for Ground State Recovery of the Dye BDN in the Nematic Liquid Crystal 5CB," Opt. Commun. 63, 94-96 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Eason, R. C. Greenhow, and D. M. Goodall, "Ground state repopulation time and saturation behaviour of BDN II in Tetrahydrothiophene-1, 1-Dioxyde," Opt. Commun. 32, 113-118 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Ogusu, Y. Kohtani, and H. Shao, "Laser-induced diffraction rings from an absorbing solution," Opt. Rev. 3, 232-234 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. W. Schoenlein, L. A. Peteanu, R. A. Mathies, and C. V. Shank, "The first step in vision: Femtosecond Isomerization of Rhodopsin," Science 254, 412-415 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

H. Nakazumi, H. Shiozaki, and T. Kitao, "Substituent effects on the resonance Raman spectra of Bis (dithiobenzil) nickel," Spectrochim. Acta 44A, 209-211 (1988).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical arrangement for the pump-probe measurement. The output beam of the Ti: Sapphire laser is spatially filtered in an evacuated hollow fiber (HF). After attenuating the energy (ATT) and setting, the pulse duration with the dispersive pulse stretcher (DPS) the pulses are focused onto the sample, which is mounted on a computer controlled motorized target holder (MTH). A fraction of the pulse energy is coupled out with a wedged fused silica beam splitter (FSW) and serves as probe beam, after passing a delay stage (DS) and a polarization rotator (PR). The transmitted probe beam is imaged onto a slow-scan CCD camera read out by a computer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Change of the transmission around zero pump-probe delay time (range I) for τp=25fs and 1.2ps pump pulses, Fpump≈0.1 J/cm2. The inset shows the four-level energy scheme and possible transitions (see text).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal evolution of the transmission of the BDN doped polycarbonate sample for τp=25fs and 1.2ps pump pulses, Fpump≈0.1 J/cm2. Range I is characterized by the instantaneous increase of the transmission for τp=25fs; as for longer pulses no fast bleaching has been observed. Range II is for the quasi-steady-state saturation; the absorber keeps its saturated state until ≈1ns. Range III is the recovery range and shows the relaxation of the absorber. The infinity-record represents data taken ≈5 seconds after excitation and reveals no change of the transmission, i.e. the absorber has fully recovered and no damage occurred.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Recovery of ground state absorption for different pump pulse durations, Fpump≈0.1 J/cm2. The slope of the curve (-1/τ) reveals the ground state repopulation time. τGSR=25.6±0.5ns has been estimated.

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