Abstract

The behavior of a room temperature synchronously mode-locked vertical-external cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) operating at 980 nm is reported. The laser performance was found to be qualitatively the same for different pump pulse duration (3.6 ps and 70 fs). The pulse duration of the laser is limited by strong self-phase modulation to around 10-40 ps. By compressing the strongly chirped pulses generated directly from the laser, ultrashort pulses with duration of around 200 fs with maximum peak powers of 1.3 kW at 80 MHz were obtained. Multiple pulsing of the laser was observed and the effects of cavity length detuning on pulse width and spectral bandwidth have been investigated.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.
  5. W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Minami and K. Era, “Cavity detuning effects in the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 56, 46–50 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamics of synchronously pumped mode-locked color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3275–3288 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Mode-locking dynamics of synchronously pumped color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8110–8120 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 187–192 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. W. Casperson, “Coherence effects in synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers,” J. App. Phys. 54, 2198–2208 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Laporta and V. Magni, “Dispersive effects in the reflection of femtosecond optical pulses from broadband dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2014–2020 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of the refractive index of semiconductors with diamond and zinc-blende structures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622–626 (1978).
  19. G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982)
    [Crossref]
  22. C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 187–192 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamics of synchronously pumped mode-locked color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3275–3288 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Mode-locking dynamics of synchronously pumped color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8110–8120 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

F. Minami and K. Era, “Cavity detuning effects in the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 56, 46–50 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. Laporta and V. Magni, “Dispersive effects in the reflection of femtosecond optical pulses from broadband dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2014–2020 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

L. W. Casperson, “Coherence effects in synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers,” J. App. Phys. 54, 2198–2208 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982)
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of the refractive index of semiconductors with diamond and zinc-blende structures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622–626 (1978).

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abram, R.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, Juerg

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ausschnitt, C. P.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
[Crossref]

Benchabane, S.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brick, P.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

Casperson, L. W.

L. W. Casperson, “Coherence effects in synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers,” J. App. Phys. 54, 2198–2208 (1983).
[Crossref]

Cusumano, P.

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

Dawson, M. D.

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

de Silvestri, S.

S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
[Crossref]

Derickson, D. J.

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
[Crossref]

Era, K.

F. Minami and K. Era, “Cavity detuning effects in the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 56, 46–50 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

Fleming, G. R.

D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Forysiak, W.

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamics of synchronously pumped mode-locked color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3275–3288 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Mode-locking dynamics of synchronously pumped color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8110–8120 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friberg, S. R.

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnache, A.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hader, J.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982)
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
[Crossref]

Holm, M. A.

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iwamura, H.

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W. B.

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

P. Laporta and V. Magni, “Dispersive effects in the reflection of femtosecond optical pulses from broadband dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2014–2020 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lutgen, S.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Machida, S.

Magni, V.

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mcdonald, D. B.

D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
[Crossref]

Minami, F.

F. Minami and K. Era, “Cavity detuning effects in the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 56, 46–50 (1985).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R.

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mitschke, F.

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 187–192 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Mode-locking dynamics of synchronously pumped color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8110–8120 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamics of synchronously pumped mode-locked color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3275–3288 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 187–192 (1998).
[Crossref]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pikhtin, N.

N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of the refractive index of semiconductors with diamond and zinc-blende structures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622–626 (1978).

Reynolds, T. E.

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

Riis, E.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roberts, J. S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rossel, J. L.

D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, M.

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
[Crossref]

Torabi-Goudarzi, F.

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xiang, W. H.

Yamamoto, Y.

W. H. Xiang, S. R. Friberg, K. Watanabe, S. Machida, W. B. Jiang, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “Femtosecond external-cavity surface-emitting InGaAs/InP multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1394–1396 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yas’kov, A. D.

N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of the refractive index of semiconductors with diamond and zinc-blende structures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622–626 (1978).

Zakharian, A. R.

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Schmid, S. Benchabane, F. Torabi-Goudarzi, R. Abram, A. I. Ferguson, and E. Riis, “Optical in-well pumping of a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4860–4862 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Zakharian, J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, S. W. Koch, P. Brick, and S. Lutgen, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1313–1315 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, R. Mirin, and J. E. Bowers, “Mode-Locked GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 677–679 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, S. R. Friberg, H. Iwamura, and Y. Yamamoto, “High powers and subpicosecond pulses from an external-cavity surfaceemitting InGaAs/InP multiple quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 807–809 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (7)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, D. J. Derickson, and J. E. Bowers, “Analysis of laser pulse chirping in mode-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1309–1318 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 259–264 (1982)
[Crossref]

C. P. Ausschnitt, R. K. Jain, and J. P. Heritage, “Cavity length detuning characteristics of the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 912–917 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. B. Mcdonald, J. L. Rossel, and G. R. Fleming, “Temporal and spectral studies of a synchronously pumped dye laser: Detailed interpretation of autocorrelation measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1134–1138 (1981).
[Crossref]

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 454–458 (1969).
[Crossref]

S. de Silvestri, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, “The role of cavity dispersion in CW mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20, 533–539 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and Juerg Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “10 GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 267–269 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. B. Jiang, M. Shimizu, R. P. Mirin, T. E. Reynolds, and J. E. Bowers, “Femtosecond periodic gain vertical-cvaity lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 23–25 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. App. Phys. (1)

L. W. Casperson, “Coherence effects in synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers,” J. App. Phys. 54, 2198–2208 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Minami and K. Era, “Cavity detuning effects in the synchronously mode-locked CW dye laser,” Opt. Commun. 56, 46–50 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamics of synchronously pumped mode-locked color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3275–3288 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Forysiak and J. V. Moloney, “Mode-locking dynamics of synchronously pumped color-center lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8110–8120 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

U. Morgner and F. Mitschke, “Drift instabilities in the pulses from cw mode-locked lasers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 187–192 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Semicond. (1)

N. Pikhtin and A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of the refractive index of semiconductors with diamond and zinc-blende structures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 622–626 (1978).

Other (1)

M. A. Holm, P. Cusumano, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Mode-locked operation of a diode-pumped, external-cavity GaAs/AlGaAs surface emitting laser,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1999), pp. 153–154.

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (62 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (57 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (103 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (69 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (104 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the mode-locking of a VECSEL synchronously pumped by a Ti: Sapphire laser (ROC radius of curvature, OC output coupler)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Series of autocorrelation traces of pulses (left hand side) and spectrum (right hand side) obtained from VECSEL at different settings of the cavity length (fs-pumping); A more detailed animation of the changes in autocorrelation functions and spectra can be obtained here (file size 61.5 KB)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Series of autocorrelation traces of pulses (left hand side) and spectrum (right hand side) obtained from VECSEL with BRF at different settings of the cavity length (fs-pumping); A more detailed animation of the changes in autocorrelation functions and spectra can be obtained here (file size 56.5 KB)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Series of autocorrelation traces of pulses (left hand side) and spectrum (right hand side) obtained from VECSEL with BRF around the optimum cavity length (fs-pumping); A more detailed animation of the changes in autocorrelation functions and spectra can be obtained here (file size 103 KB)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Autocorrelation and spectrum of the compressed pulses (fs-pumping, without BRF): (a) up-chirped pulse was compressed to 244 fs (assuming a hyperbolic secant profile; cavity detuning length was around +8 μm); (b) down-chirped pulse was compressed by fiber to 600 fs (assuming a hyperbolic secant profile; cavity detuning length was around +10 μm) [Media 5]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Autocorrelation and spectrum of the compressed pulses profile (fs-pumping, with BRF):compression for primary pulse with weak satellite pulses and pulse duration was 2.7 ps (assuminga hyperbolic secant profile; cavity detuning length was around -8 μm); (b) compression forprimary pulse with strong satellite pulses profile (cavity detuning length was -1 μm and +1 μm,shown in Fig. 3); The inset shows both primary pulse and satellite pulse after shifting the zero position of time axis (region shown -40 to +10 ps, SP= satellite pulse, PM= primary pulse). [Media 4]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Autocorrelation and spectrum of the compressed pulse (ps-pumping); The pulse width is 185 fs assuming a hyperbolic secant profile. (The detuning length was about +5~10 μm)

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