Abstract

Waveguide amplifiers fabricated in Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide (GLS) glass are demonstrated. GLS is deposited onto fused silica substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and waveguides are patterned by use of the lift-off technique. The waveguides exhibit a total internal gain of 6.7 dB (2.8 dB/cm) for a signal with a wavelength of 1.55μm. This experiment is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of gain in an Er3+-doped chalcogenide glass waveguide. The fabrication methods we apply, if used with other rare earth dopants, could potentially be employed to produce sources operating in the mid-IR.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. V. Frolov, A. Paunesca, Y. H. Wong, G. Weber, Y. D. Hazan, D. Fleming, A. Hanjani, J. Smulovich, and A. Bruce, "Inplane’s technology platform for subsystems on a chip," in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications VI, M. J. H. Andrew R. Pirich and E. Donkor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5435, 120-126 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Zimmerman and L. H. Spiekman, "Amplifiers for the Masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA Amplets for Metro and Access Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Bornstein, J. Flashaut, M. Guittard, S. Jaulmes, A. M. Loireau-Lozac’h, G. Lucazeau, and R. Reisfeld, in The rare earths in Modern Science and Technology, (Plenum, NY, 1978).
  7. A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, "Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," Materials Lett. (2005). To be published.
  13. M. S. Stern, "Semivectorial polarised finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," IEE Proceedings J. Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2005

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. R. Zimmerman and L. H. Spiekman, "Amplifiers for the Masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA Amplets for Metro and Access Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. S. Stern, "Semivectorial polarised finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," IEE Proceedings J. Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birtwell, S. W.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chardon, A. M.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Curry, R. J.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D.W.

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mairaj, A. K.

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. C.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B.

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spiekman, L. H.

Stern, M. S.

M. S. Stern, "Semivectorial polarised finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," IEE Proceedings J. Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, P. A.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, D. R.

Electron. Lett.

A. K. Mairaj, R. J. Curry, and D.W. Hewak, "Chalcogenide glass thin films through inverted deposition and high velocity spinning," Electron. Lett. 40, 421-422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.W. Hewak, R. C. Moore, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, B. Samson, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and E. J. Tarbox, "Gallium lanthanum sulphide optical fibre for active and passive applications," Electron. Lett. 32, 384-385 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Electron. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, R. C. Moore, D.W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 33, 414-416 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proceedings J. Optoelectron.

M. S. Stern, "Semivectorial polarised finite difference method for optical waveguides with arbitrary index profiles," IEE Proceedings J. Optoelectron. 135, 56-63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, P. A. Thielen, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Mid-Wave IR and Long-Wave IR Laser Potential of Rare-Earth Doped Chalcogenide Glass Fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1127-1137 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. K. Mairaj, A. M. Chardon, D. P. Shepherd, and D.W. Hewak, "Laser Performance and Spectroscopic Analysis of Optically Written Channel Waveguides in Neodymium-Doped Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Glass," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1381-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

R. J. Curry, S. W. Birtwell, A. K. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. W. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Specteal properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208, 56-63 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Frantz, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, G. Villalobos, I. D. Aggarwal, and D. W. Hewak, "Sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," Materials Lett. (2005). To be published.

A. Bornstein, J. Flashaut, M. Guittard, S. Jaulmes, A. M. Loireau-Lozac’h, G. Lucazeau, and R. Reisfeld, in The rare earths in Modern Science and Technology, (Plenum, NY, 1978).

S. V. Frolov, A. Paunesca, Y. H. Wong, G. Weber, Y. D. Hazan, D. Fleming, A. Hanjani, J. Smulovich, and A. Bruce, "Inplane’s technology platform for subsystems on a chip," in Enabling Photonic Technologies for Aerospace Applications VI, M. J. H. Andrew R. Pirich and E. Donkor, eds., Proc. SPIE 5435, 120-126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the lift-off fabrication process showing a cross section of two waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the amplification measurement setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM image of (a) a cross section and (b) a view with a 10° inclination of a GLS amplifier. This waveguide was patterned with a 10μm mask opening.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spontaneous emission from a waveguide when pumped with 1480 nm and 980 nm wavelength light.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A grayscale image (a) and a contour map (b) of the output at a 1.5μm wavelength of a waveguide pumped with 1480 nm light. Contours are shown from 0.2 to 0.9 of the maximum irradiance at intervals of 0.1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Internal gain as a function of pump power.

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