Abstract

We propose a novel 3-bit/symbol optical data format based on simultaneously modulating dark-return-to-zero (DRZ), differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) and polarization-shift-keying (PolSK) on the same optical carrier. Transmission performance is investigated. The proposed data format has a more compact spectrum when compared with other modulation schemes (at the same data rate), such as return-to-zero (RZ), DPSK and PolSK. It is also more tolerant to phase noise when compared with optical-differential-quadrature-phase-shift-keying (ODQPSK).

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift keying (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 2002) Paper WX6, 367-368.
  2. M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Optical packet labeling based on simultaneous polarization shift keying and amplitude shift keying," Opt. Lett. 29, 1861-1863 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Hu, Y. Hsueh, K. Wong, M. Marhic, L. Kazovsky, K. Shimizu, and N. Kikuchi, "4-level direct-detection polarization shift-keying (DD-PolSK) system with phase modulators" in Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 2003) 2, 647-649.
  5. S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Nicholson and D. J. Temple, "Polarization fluctuation measurements on installed single-mode optical fiber cables," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1197-1200 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Miyazaki, and F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulation-demodulation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyazaki, and F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulation-demodulation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, and H. K. Tsang, "Optical packet labeling based on simultaneous polarization shift keying and amplitude shift keying," Opt. Lett. 29, 1861-1863 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Nicholson and D. J. Temple, "Polarization fluctuation measurements on installed single-mode optical fiber cables," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1197-1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. -K.

S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. -K.

S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

Comellas, J.

J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gene, J. M.

J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ide, K.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
[CrossRef]

Kubota, F.

T. Miyazaki, and F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulation-demodulation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki, and F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulation-demodulation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, G.

G. Nicholson and D. J. Temple, "Polarization fluctuation measurements on installed single-mode optical fiber cables," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1197-1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ogusu, M.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
[CrossRef]

Ohm, M.

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohshima, S.

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
[CrossRef]

Prat, J.

J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pun, S. -S.

S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speidel, J.

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D. J.

G. Nicholson and D. J. Temple, "Polarization fluctuation measurements on installed single-mode optical fiber cables," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1197-1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Wong, C. S.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

S. -S. Pun, C. -K. Chan, and L. -K. Chen, "Demonstration of novel optical transmitter for high-speed differential phase-shift-keying/inverse-return-to-zero (DPSK/In-RZ) orthogonally modulated signals," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 2763-2765 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Comellas, J. M. Gene, and J. Prat., "Quaternary optical transmission system combining phase and polarization-shift keying," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyazaki, and F. Kubota, "Superposition of DQPSK over inverse-RZ for 3-bit/symbol modulation-demodulation," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 2643-2645 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohm and J. Speidel, "Quaternary optical ASK-DPSK and receivers with direct detection," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 159-161 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

M. Ogusu, K. Ide, and S. Ohshima, "Ultra-dence WDM with over 100% spectral efficiency using co-polarized 40-Gb/s Inverse-RZ signals," IEICE Trans. Commun. 88, 195-202 (2005).E
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. Nicholson and D. J. Temple, "Polarization fluctuation measurements on installed single-mode optical fiber cables," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1197-1200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

E. Hu, Y. Hsueh, K. Wong, M. Marhic, L. Kazovsky, K. Shimizu, and N. Kikuchi, "4-level direct-detection polarization shift-keying (DD-PolSK) system with phase modulators" in Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 2003) 2, 647-649.

R. A. Griffin and A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift keying (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 2002) Paper WX6, 367-368.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the (a) transmitter and timing chart of the three modulations; and (b) receiver of the proposed 3-bit/symbol modulation scheme. CW: continuous-wave, MOD: modulator, PM: phase modulator, APC: automatic polarization controller, POL: polarizer, and BERT: bit-error-rate tester.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation results of receiver sensitivity at BER of 10-9 under different pulse widths and extinction ratio of the DRZ in the 3-bit/symbol modulation scheme. The pulse width of the DRZ payload is from 20 ps to 45 ps, step size of 5 ps.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Eye opening factor (EOP) of the (a) DRZ, (b) DPSK, and (c) PolSK in the 3-bit/symbol modulation scheme versus different DGD and principle state of polarization (PSP) orientation during transmission. Key: EOF at the worse case.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Received eye diagrams of (a) DRZ, (b) DPSK, and (c) PolSK of the 3-bit/symbol modulation scheme with optical pre-amplifier noise.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Eye opening factors of the proposed scheme under polarization dependent loss (PDL). Power penalty of (b) PolSK, (c) DPSK and (d) both under polarization misalignment in the receiver and timing misalignment with the DRZ.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical spectra of the proposed 3-bit/symbol modulation, RZ, DPSK and PolSK modulations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Power penalty versus laser linewidth for the 3-bit/symbol modulation and the ODQPSK system.

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