Abstract

We have studied the transverse and axial equilibrium positions of dielectric micro-spheres trapped in a single-beam gradient optical trap and exposed to an increasing fluid flow transverse to the trapping beam axis. It is demonstrated that the axial equilibrium position of a trapped micro-sphere is a function of its transverse position in the trapping beam. Moreover, although the applied drag-force acts perpendicularly to the beam axis, reaching a certain distance r0 from the beam axis (r0/a ≈ 0.6, a being the sphere radius) the particle escapes the trap due to a breaking axial equilibrium before the actual maximum transverse trapping force is reached. The comparison between a theoretical model and the measurements shows that neglecting these axial equilibrium considerations leads to a theoretical overestimation in the maximal optical transverse trapping forces of up to 50%.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (5)

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Roichman, A. Waldron, E. Gardel and D. G. Grier, "Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations," Appl. Opt., in press (2005).

K. C. Neuman, E. A. Abbondanzieri, and S. M. Block, "Measurement of the effective focal shift in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 30, 1318-1320 (2005).

O. Moine and B. Stout, "Optical force calculations in arbitrary beams by use of the vector addition theorem," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1620-1631 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

D. Ganic, X. S. Gan, and M. Gu, "Exact radiation trapping force calculation based on vectorial diffraction theory," Opt. Express 12, 2670-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, "Microfluidics: Sorting particles with light," Nat. Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mazolli, P. A. M. Neto, and H. M. Nussenzveig, "Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phys. Eng. Sci. 459, 3021-3041 (2003).

2002 (2)

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Trapping forces, force constants, and potential depths for dielectric spheres in the presence of spherical aberrations," Appl. Opt. 41, 2494-2507 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. T. O’Neill and M. J. Padgett, "Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 193, 45-50 (2001).

1998 (2)

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, "Characterization of trapping force in the presence of spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2159-2168 (1998)

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

W. H. Wright, G. J. Sonek, and M. W. Berns, "Parametric Study of the Forces on Microspheres Held by Optical Tweezers," Appl. Opt. 33, 1735-1748 (1994).

K. F. Ren, G. Greha, and G. Gouesbet, "Radiation Pressure Forces Exerted on a Particle Arbitrarily Located in a Gaussian-Beam by Using the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Associated Resonance Effects," Opt. Commun. 108, 343-354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

1992 (1)

A. Ashkin, "Forces of a Single-Beam Gradient Laser Trap on a Dielectric Sphere in the Ray Optics Regime," Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).

1991 (1)

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, "Optical Trapping and Rotational Manipulation of Microscopic Particles and Biological Cells Using Higher-Order Mode Nd-Yag Laser-Beams," Electron. Lett. 27, 1831-1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1979 (1)

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphéres," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260-1279 (1979).

Abbondanzieri, E. A.

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allen, L.

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

Arimondo, E.

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, "Forces of a Single-Beam Gradient Laser Trap on a Dielectric Sphere in the Ray Optics Regime," Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a Single-Beam Gradient Force Optical Trap for Dielectric Particles," Opt. Lett. 11, 288-290 (1986).

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Berns, M. W.

Birkbeck, A.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

Booker, G. R.

Butler, W. F.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Cremer, C.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

Dees, B.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

Dziedzic, J. M.

Enger, J.

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Felgner, H.

Flynn, R.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forster, A. H.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gan, X. S.

Ganic, D.

Gardel, E.

Y. Roichman, A. Waldron, E. Gardel and D. G. Grier, "Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations," Appl. Opt., in press (2005).

Glückstad, J.

J. Glückstad, "Microfluidics: Sorting particles with light," Nat. Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).

Goksor, M.

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gouesbet, G.

K. F. Ren, G. Greha, and G. Gouesbet, "Radiation Pressure Forces Exerted on a Particle Arbitrarily Located in a Gaussian-Beam by Using the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Associated Resonance Effects," Opt. Commun. 108, 343-354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greha, G.

K. F. Ren, G. Greha, and G. Gouesbet, "Radiation Pressure Forces Exerted on a Particle Arbitrarily Located in a Gaussian-Beam by Using the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Associated Resonance Effects," Opt. Commun. 108, 343-354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

Y. Roichman, A. Waldron, E. Gardel and D. G. Grier, "Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations," Appl. Opt., in press (2005).

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

D. Ganic, X. S. Gan, and M. Gu, "Exact radiation trapping force calculation based on vectorial diffraction theory," Opt. Express 12, 2670-2675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, "Characterization of trapping force in the presence of spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2159-2168 (1998)

Hagberg, P.

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, N.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanstorp, D.

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hell, S.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

Hossack, W. J.

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, "Optical Trapping and Rotational Manipulation of Microscopic Particles and Biological Cells Using Higher-Order Mode Nd-Yag Laser-Beams," Electron. Lett. 27, 1831-1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, M.

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, "Optical Trapping and Rotational Manipulation of Microscopic Particles and Biological Cells Using Higher-Order Mode Nd-Yag Laser-Beams," Electron. Lett. 27, 1831-1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kariv, I.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ke, P. C.

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, "Characterization of trapping force in the presence of spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2159-2168 (1998)

Krauss, T. F.

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laczik, Z.

Macdonald, M. P.

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malagnino, N.

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, P. J.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazolli, A.

A. Mazolli, P. A. M. Neto, and H. M. Nussenzveig, "Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phys. Eng. Sci. 459, 3021-3041 (2003).

McGloin, D.

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

Mercer, E. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moine, O.

Muller, O.

Neale, S. L.

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neto, P. A. M.

A. Mazolli, P. A. M. Neto, and H. M. Nussenzveig, "Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phys. Eng. Sci. 459, 3021-3041 (2003).

Neuman, K. C.

Nussenzveig, H. M.

A. Mazolli, P. A. M. Neto, and H. M. Nussenzveig, "Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phys. Eng. Sci. 459, 3021-3041 (2003).

O’Neill, A. T.

A. T. O’Neill and M. J. Padgett, "Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 193, 45-50 (2001).

Ozkan, C.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, M.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M. J.

A. T. O’Neill and M. J. Padgett, "Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 193, 45-50 (2001).

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

Pesce, G.

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramser, K.

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, D. E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, G.

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

Ren, K. F.

K. F. Ren, G. Greha, and G. Gouesbet, "Radiation Pressure Forces Exerted on a Particle Arbitrarily Located in a Gaussian-Beam by Using the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Associated Resonance Effects," Opt. Commun. 108, 343-354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rohrbach, A.

Roichman, Y.

Y. Roichman, A. Waldron, E. Gardel and D. G. Grier, "Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations," Appl. Opt., in press (2005).

Roosen, G.

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphéres," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260-1279 (1979).

Sasso, A.

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, "Optical Trapping and Rotational Manipulation of Microscopic Particles and Biological Cells Using Higher-Order Mode Nd-Yag Laser-Beams," Electron. Lett. 27, 1831-1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, S. A.

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schliwa, M.

Simpson, N. B.

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

Sonek, G. J.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Trapping forces, force constants, and potential depths for dielectric spheres in the presence of spherical aberrations," Appl. Opt. 41, 2494-2507 (2002).

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

Stout, B.

Theofanidou, E.

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torok, P.

Tu, E.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varga, P.

Waldron, A.

Y. Roichman, A. Waldron, E. Gardel and D. G. Grier, "Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations," Appl. Opt., in press (2005).

Wang, M.

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L.

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W. H.

Yang, J. M.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. C.

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

M. Ozkan, M. Wang, C. Ozkan, R. Flynn, A. Birkbeck, and S. Esener, "Optical manipulation of objects and biological cells in microfluidic devices," Biomed. Microdevices 5, 61-67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

A. Ashkin, "Forces of a Single-Beam Gradient Laser Trap on a Dielectric Sphere in the Ray Optics Regime," Biophys. J. 61, 569-582 (1992).

Can. J. Phys. (1)

G. Roosen, "La lévitation optique de sphéres," Can. J. Phys. 57, 1260-1279 (1979).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Sato, M. Ishigure, and H. Inaba, "Optical Trapping and Rotational Manipulation of Microscopic Particles and Biological Cells Using Higher-Order Mode Nd-Yag Laser-Beams," Electron. Lett. 27, 1831-1832 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, "Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4594-4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

N. B. Simpson, D. McGloin, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, "Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943-1949 (1998).

P. C. Ke and M. Gu, "Characterization of trapping force in the presence of spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2159-2168 (1998)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Lab. Chip (1)

J. Enger, M. Goksor, K. Ramser, P. Hagberg, and D. Hanstorp, "Optical tweezers applied to a microfluidic system," Lab. Chip 4, 196-200 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

M. M. Wang, E. Tu, D. E. Raymond, J. M. Yang, H. C. Zhang, N. Hagen, B. Dees, E. M. Mercer, A. H. Forster, I. Kariv, P. J. Marchand, and W. F. Butler, "Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 83-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. L. Neale, M. P. Macdonald, K. Dholakia, and T. F. Krauss, "All-optical control of microfluidic components using form birefringence," Nat. Mater. 4, 530-533 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Glückstad, "Microfluidics: Sorting particles with light," Nat. Mater. 3, 9-10 (2004).

Nature (1)

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

K. F. Ren, G. Greha, and G. Gouesbet, "Radiation Pressure Forces Exerted on a Particle Arbitrarily Located in a Gaussian-Beam by Using the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Associated Resonance Effects," Opt. Commun. 108, 343-354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Theofanidou, L. Wilson,W. J. Hossack and J. Arlt, "Spherical aberration correction for optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 236, 145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. T. O’Neill and M. J. Padgett, "Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 193, 45-50 (2001).

N. Malagnino, G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and E. Arimondo, "Measurements of trapping efficiency and stiffness in optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 214, 15-24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Oxford (1)

S. Hell, G. Reiner, C. Cremer, and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Aberrations in Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy Induced by Mismatches in Refractive-Index," J. Microsc.-Oxford 169, 391-405 (1993).

Phys. Eng. Sci. (1)

A. Mazolli, P. A. M. Neto, and H. M. Nussenzveig, "Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A-Math.Phys. Eng. Sci. 459, 3021-3041 (2003).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, "Optical trapping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787-2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J. Happel and H. Brenner, eds., Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordecht, the Netherlands, 1991).

H. C. van de Hulst, "Light Scattering by Small Particles," pp. 114-227 (Dover Press, New York, 1981).

Supplementary Material (1)

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