Abstract

We report a THz radiation source based on the technique of non-collinear phasematched parametric generation. The source, which is compact and operable at room temperature, generates nanosecond pulses of peak power and energy greater than 1W and 5 nJ respectively. The radiation is continuously tunable over the range 1.2–3.05 THz and is of narrow spectral bandwidth (<100 GHz). The use of intersecting pump and parametric wave cavities results in threshold pump pulse energies below 1 mJ (from a Nd:YAG laser excited at 20 W, 500 μsec by a quasi-CW diode-laser) and close to 50% down-conversion efficiency when operated at twice threshold.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Mittleman ed., Sensing with terahertz radiation, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).
  3. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Shikata, K. Kawase, M. Sato, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Enhancement of terahertz-wave output from LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillators by cryogenic cooling," Opt. Lett. 24, 202-204 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, "Arrayed silicon prism coupler for a THz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Opt. 40, 1423-1426 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 24, 184-197 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. R. Mueller, "Submillimeter wave lasers" in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, (John Wiley and Sons, 1999), Vol. 20, p. 597.
  12. W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius and K. Vodopyanov, "Efficient, tunable, and coherent 0.18-5.27-THz source based on GaSe crystal," Opt. Lett. 27, 1454-1456 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).
  14. S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415-431 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, "Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol. % magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3319-3322 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (UK Edition, Academic Press Inc. London: 1985), p. 702.

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, N. Fernelius and K. Vodopyanov, "Efficient, tunable, and coherent 0.18-5.27-THz source based on GaSe crystal," Opt. Lett. 27, 1454-1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415-431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Auston, D. H.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415-431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415-431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlain, J. M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darrow, J. T.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y. J.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, A. G.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, H.

K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, "Arrayed silicon prism coupler for a THz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Opt. 40, 1423-1426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, M. Sato, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Enhancement of terahertz-wave output from LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillators by cryogenic cooling," Opt. Lett. 24, 202-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D.

Karino, K-I

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Minamide, K. Imai, and H. Ito, "Arrayed silicon prism coupler for a THz-wave parametric oscillator," Appl. Opt. 40, 1423-1426 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, M. Sato, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Enhancement of terahertz-wave output from LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillators by cryogenic cooling," Opt. Lett. 24, 202-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T.

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minamide, H.

Nakamura, K.

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, M.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, M. Sato, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Enhancement of terahertz-wave output from LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillators by cryogenic cooling," Opt. Lett. 24, 202-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

Shikata, J.

Shikata, J-I

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, J-I.

K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Small, D. L.

Smith, M. A.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taniuchi, T.

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, M. Sato, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Enhancement of terahertz-wave output from LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillators by cryogenic cooling," Opt. Lett. 24, 202-204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K.

Walker, G. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zelmon, D. E.

Zhang, X. C.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zinovev, N. N.

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, M. Sato, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Coherent tunable THz-wave generation from LiNbO3 with monolithic grating coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, pp. 2483-2485 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

A. G. Fox and T. Li, "Resonant modes in a maser interferometer," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 40, 453-488 (1961).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

D. H. Auston, and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 24, 184-197 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Brosnan and R. L. Byer, "Optical parametric oscillator threshold and linewidth studies," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 415-431 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J-I Shikata, K. Kawase, K-I Karino, T. Taniuchi and H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 653-661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kawase, J-I. Shikata and H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 1-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-hetrostructure laser," Nature 417156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Berry, N. N. Zinovev, G. C. Walker, M. A. Smith and J. M. Chamberlain, "An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, R67-R84 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications—explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (UK Edition, Academic Press Inc. London: 1985), p. 702.

D. Mittleman ed., Sensing with terahertz radiation, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003).

E. R. Mueller, "Submillimeter wave lasers" in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, (John Wiley and Sons, 1999), Vol. 20, p. 597.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the non-collinear phasematched Thz OPO.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Undepleted (dashed line) and depleted (solid line) pump pulses for the device operating at twice OPO threshold.The idler pulse is also shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tuning characteristic of the device.

Metrics