Abstract

High second-order susceptibility has been created in a chalcogenide glass from Ge-Sb-S system. A thermal poling process was used to produce this non-linear effect and a second harmonic generation experiment allowed characterizing the phenomenon. A maximum χ(2) value of 8.0±0.5 pm/V was measured for the first time to our best knowledge in sulfide glasses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica," Opt. Lett. 16, 1732-1734 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Mukherjee, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Dynamics of second-harmonic generation in fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 665-669 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, "Second-harmonic generation of thermally poled chalcogenide glass," Opt. Express 13, 789-795 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623-3625 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Wiedenbeck, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of space-charge formation in thermally poled fused silica," J. App. Phys. 86, 6634-6640 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, Y. Quiquempois, "Time evolution of second-order nonlinear profiles induced within thermally poled silica samples," Opt. Lett. 30, 1039-1041 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2003

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Wiedenbeck, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of space-charge formation in thermally poled fused silica," J. App. Phys. 86, 6634-6640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1962

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Wiedenbeck, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of space-charge formation in thermally poled fused silica," J. App. Phys. 86, 6634-6640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Angelis, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guignard, M.

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koga, M.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

Le Foulgoc, K.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lelek, M.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leneindre, L.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, G.

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Nazabal, V.

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Quemard, C.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, "Second-harmonic generation of thermally poled chalcogenide glass," Opt. Express 13, 789-795 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Troles, J.

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiedenbeck, M.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Wiedenbeck, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of space-charge formation in thermally poled fused silica," J. App. Phys. 86, 6634-6640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, "Second-harmonic generation of thermally poled chalcogenide glass," Opt. Express 13, 789-795 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibers by self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache, and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. App. Phys.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck, M. Wiedenbeck, "Secondary ion mass spectrometry study of space-charge formation in thermally poled fused silica," J. App. Phys. 86, 6634-6640 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kobayashi, H. Kanbara, M. Koga, and K. Kubodera, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of As2S3 chalcogenide glass," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3683-3687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, "Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 139-142 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Maximum SH intensity versus the temperature used for the poling process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MF patterns recorded for three temperatures : (a) 170°C and (b) 230°C (full line) and 310°C (dashed lines).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

MF patterns recorded for poling durations of 5 min (black rhomb), 30 min (black cross) and 60min (opened circle) at 170°C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of the SH signal as a function of the depth (removed thickness) under the anodic surface of the 5 min-poled sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reconstructed χ(2) profile versus the depth under anode following the numerical “layer peeling” simulation method. In the corner are plotted experimental and theoretical MF curves obtained for this profile.

Equations (1)

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P c , 2 ω = K ( θ i ) 0 L χ ( 2 ) ( z ) · exp [ j Δ k · z cos ( θ i ) ] dz 2

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