Abstract

One of the main drawbacks of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) is the limited measurement depth range. Phase shifting techniques allow reconstructing the complex sample signal resulting in a doubled depth range. In current complex FDOCT realizations the phase shift is introduced via a reference path length modulation, which causes chromatic phase errors especially if broad bandwidth light sources are employed. With acousto-optic frequency shifters in the reference and sample arm, and the detector being locked to the resulting beating frequency, the signal is quadrature detected at high speed. The beating signal frequency is the same for all wavelengths allowing for achromatic complex reconstruction. With a Ti: Sapphire laser at 800 nm and spectral width of 130nm, a heterodyne complex FDOCT system is realized with 20kHz line rate and an axial resolution of 4μm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povaz¡ay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, Ch. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, Ch. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-Dimensional Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46, 3396-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, "High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 583-594 (2005)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-583.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, J. F. de Boer," In vivo high resolution video rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A.F Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Scrinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer," Ultrahigh-resolution high speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977- 2998 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting," Opt. Express 12, 6184-6191 (2004)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-25-6184.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

2002 (2)

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner," Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit and K. Creath, "Extended averaging technique for derivation of error-compensating algorithms in phase-shfiting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 3610-3619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

E. Wolf," Three dimensional structure determination of semi transparent objects from holographic data," Opt. Commun. 1, 153-156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, G.

Bajraszewski, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A.F Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Choma, M. A.

Choma, M.A.

Creath, K.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Duker, J.S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El Ziat, S. Y

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Phase shifting algorithm to achieve high speed long depth range probing by frequency domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2201-2203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser,"Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Reports on progress in physics 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.F

Fercher, A.F.

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.G.

Gorczynska, I.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner," Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser,"Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Reports on progress in physics 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Phase shifting algorithm to achieve high speed long depth range probing by frequency domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2201-2203 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C.K.

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Izatt, J.A.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Scrinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser,"Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Reports on progress in physics 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, "High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 583-594 (2005)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-583.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner," Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povaz¡ay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, Ch. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, Ch. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-Dimensional Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46, 3396-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N. A.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Radzewicz, C.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povaz¡ay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, Ch. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, Ch. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-Dimensional Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46, 3396-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmit, J.

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scrinivasan, V.

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Sumimura, H.

Szkulmowski, M.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Wasilewski, W.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Scrinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf," Three dimensional structure determination of semi transparent objects from holographic data," Opt. Commun. 1, 153-156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Am J. Ophthalm. (1)

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. (1)

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povaz¡ay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, Ch. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, Ch. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-Dimensional Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46, 3396-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner," Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

E. Wolf," Three dimensional structure determination of semi transparent objects from holographic data," Opt. Commun. 1, 153-156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, J. F. de Boer," In vivo high resolution video rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt,"Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A.F Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Scrinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer," Ultrahigh-resolution high speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977- 2998 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977.

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting," Opt. Express 12, 6184-6191 (2004)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-25-6184.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, "High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 583-594 (2005)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-583.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE Vol. (1)

A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reports on progress in physics (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser,"Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Reports on progress in physics 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulation of complex FDOCT signal reconstruction with chromatic phase shifting. Mirror terms in the left half (P*, grey shaded area) are not totally suppressed. The signals are normalized to the true signal peak amplitudes (P) in the right half space. The ratio between P* and P indicates the mirror term suppression. The simulation supposes a Gaussian spectral distribution with a spectral width (FWHM) of 20nm (black), 40nm (red), 90nm (green) and 130nm (blue) respectively. The central wavelengths are 800nm for all cases.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The three plotted curves show the suppression ratio of P* (mirror term) with respect to P (signal peak) for three different central wavelengths of the light source depending on optical bandwidth (λ 0=550nm (blue), λ 0=800nm (red), λ 0=1300nm (green)). Above -40dB mirror terms become visible and the reconstruction algorithm fails. The “noisy” characteristics of the curves at larger bandwidths are due to leakage after discrete FFT.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Logarithmic spectral characteristics of the two pigtailed AOFS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mach-Zehnder like interferometer comprising: Ti:Sapphire light source (LS), 90:10 fiber coupler (FC), AOFS shifting the light fields by ωR,S, translation stage (TS), dispersion compensation (DC), 50:50 beamsplitter (BS), galvo scanners (X-Y scan), camera lens (CL). Box in top left corner shows: (a) beating signal; (b) camera trigger; (c) camera exposure; (d) brackets indicate the frames used for complex two-frame reconstruction; different colors indicate frames used for differential complex technique.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Tomogram of a fingernail fold region with standard FDOCT and no DC correction. The zero-delay is clearly visible due to the strong DC signal (bright line in the center). (b) As (a) but with calculated DC correction. (c) As (a) but reconstruction of complex signal according to differential complex method (see Eq.(5)) described in §2.2. (d) As (a) but reconstruction of complex signal according to Eq.(4) in §2.1 with a calculated DC correction. All tomograms are based on the same dataset. The tomogram depth shown is 1.75mm (in air).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a)-(d) Same remarks as for Fig. 5. In-vivo object was a fingertip of an adult and the tomogram depth shown is 1.95mm (in air).

Equations (7)

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I ( k ) = I R ( k ) + I S ( k ) + i , j ; i j E S , i ( k ) E S , j * ( k ) + i E R ( k ) E S , i * ( k ) + c . c ,
I AC k t = 2 i I R ( k ) I S , i ( k ) cos ( Ω t Ψ i ) ,
I AC , int k t = 2 i I R ( k ) I S , i ( k ) cos ( Ω t Ψ i ) sin c ( τ Ω 2 π ) ,
I ˜ ( k ) = I k t 0 jI ( k , t 0 + π 2 Ω ) ,
I ˜ 2 x 2 ( k ) = I ˜ k t 0 I ˜ ( k , t 0 + π Ω ) =
= [ I AC ( k , t 0 ) I AC ( k , t 0 + π Ω ) ] j [ I AC ( k , t 0 + π 2 Ω ) I AC ( k , t 0 + 3 π 2 Ω ) ] =
= 2 ( I AC k t 0 jI AC ( k , t 0 + π 2 Ω ) ) .

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