Abstract

Simultaneous reshaping of optically time-division-multiplexed RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK signals by a fiber-based regenerator is numerically demonstrated. The regenerator utilizes the four-wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fiber. A parametric amplifier configuration without wavelength conversion of the signal is assumed, in which ultra-fast saturation of the FWM interaction gives stabilization of signal amplitude with the signal phase principally maintained. The regenerator greatly improves the performance of OOK tributaries. Although the regenerator does not have the function of phase regeneration, it improves the DPSK signal quality when the signal power is relatively low where the amplitude noise is significant. Influence of the pump phase modulation on the regenerator performance is also examined.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, C. T. Politi, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, "Demonstration of a fully functional and controlled optical packet switch at 40 Gb/s," 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, PD paper Th4.4.5 (2004).
  3. W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, "Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion," 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuC1 (2005).
  4. A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, "All-optical DPSK signal regeneration based on cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083-1085 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Croussore, C. Kim, and G. Li, "All-optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keying signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Lett. 29, 2357-2359 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grygoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degradaed DPSK signals," 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper PDP34 (2005).
  8. M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055-1057 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Croussore, I. Kim, Y. Han, C. Kim, G. Li, and S. Radic, "Demonstration of phase-regeneration of DPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Express 13, 3945-3950 (2005)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3945.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849-851 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, "Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 576-577 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, L. Pierre, P. Brindel, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, J-L. Oudar, and O. Leclerc, "40Gbit/s optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for WDM long-haul transmissions," 2002 Optical Fiber Communication Conference, PD paper FD11 (2002).
  14. J. P. Gordon and L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Matsumoto, "Performance improvement of phase-shift keying signal transmission by means of optical limiters using four-wave mixing in fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2696-2701 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 677-679 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Kalogerakis, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump FM to signal IM conversion in fiber OPAs," in proceedings of 9th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference/3rd International Conference on Optical Internet (OECC/COIN2004), 284-285 (2004).
  19. M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T. -K. Chiang, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 21, 573-575 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (3)

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Croussore, C. Kim, and G. Li, "All-optical regeneration of differential phase-shift keying signals based on phase-sensitive amplification," Opt. Lett. 29, 2357-2359 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, "All-optical DPSK signal regeneration based on cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083-1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, "Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 576-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849-851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 677-679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, N. Kagi, T. -K. Chiang, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 21, 573-575 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Bayart, D.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. -K.

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. -K.

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. -K.

Ciaramella, E.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849-851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Croussore, K.

Cvecek, K.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durecu-Legrand, A.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Han, Y.

Hung, W.

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Imajuku, W.

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 677-679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kagi, N.

Kazovsky, L. G.

Kim, C.

Kim, I.

Lantz, E.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, O.

M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, "Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 576-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Maillotte, H.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055-1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, "Performance improvement of phase-shift keying signal transmission by means of optical limiters using four-wave mixing in fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2696-2701 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, "Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 576-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, M.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mussot, A.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

Schmauss, B.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, "All-optical DPSK signal regeneration based on cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083-1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simonneau, C.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sponsel, K.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Striegler, A.

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, "All-optical DPSK signal regeneration based on cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083-1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Striegler, A. G.

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 677-679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, F.

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849-851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

K. Inoue, "Optical level equalisation based on gain saturation in fibre optical parametric amplifier," Electron. Lett. 36, 1016-1017 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, "Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber," Electron. Lett. 38, 576-577 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Takada and W. Imajuku, "Amplitude noise suppression using a high gain phase sensitive amplifier as a limiting amplifier," Electron. Lett. 32, 677-679 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

A. Mussot, A. Durecu-Legrand, E. Lantz, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, H. Maillotte, and T. Sylvestre, "Impact of pump phase modulation on the gain of fiber optical parametric amplifer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, "Regeneration of RZ-DPSK signals by fiber-based all-optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1055-1057 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Ciaramella and S. Trillo, "All-optical signal reshaping via four-wave-mixing in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 849-851 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Hung, C. -K. Chan, L. -K. Chen, and F. Tong, "A bit-serial optical packet label-swapping scheme using DPSK encoded labels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1630-1632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Striegler and B. Schmauss, "All-optical DPSK signal regeneration based on cross-phase modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1083-1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Striegler, M. Meissner, K. Cvecek, K. Sponsel, G. Leuchs, and B. Schmauss, "NOLM-based RZ-DPSK signal regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 639-641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (5)

G. Kalogerakis, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, "Pump FM to signal IM conversion in fiber OPAs," in proceedings of 9th Optoelectronics and Communications Conference/3rd International Conference on Optical Internet (OECC/COIN2004), 284-285 (2004).

P. S. Devgan, M. Shin, V. S. Grygoryan, J. Lasri, and P. Kumar, "SOA-based regenerative amplification of phase noise degradaed DPSK signals," 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper PDP34 (2005).

D. Klonidis, R. Nejabati, C. T. Politi, M. J. O'Mahony, and D. Simeonidou, "Demonstration of a fully functional and controlled optical packet switch at 40 Gb/s," 30th European Conference on Optical Communication, PD paper Th4.4.5 (2004).

W. Shieh, X. Yi, and A. V. Tran, "Label swapping for DPSK encoded labels without wavelength conversion," 2005 Optical Fiber Communications Conference, paper OTuC1 (2005).

D. Rouvillain, F. Seguineau, L. Pierre, P. Brindel, H. Choumane, G. Aubin, J-L. Oudar, and O. Leclerc, "40Gbit/s optical 2R regenerator based on passive saturable absorber for WDM long-haul transmissions," 2002 Optical Fiber Communication Conference, PD paper FD11 (2002).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Simultaneous transmission of OOK- and DPSK-modulated signal packets (bursts) at the same carrier wavelength in a fiber. Even a single packet may consist of DPSK header and OOK payload in an optical label switching network as shown in (b). Regenerators in such systems should regenerate, or at least be transparent to, both differently modulated signals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

An optical regenerator (limiter) based on FWM in a fiber. SA: saturable absorber, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, OBPF: optical bandpass filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Gain of a single-pump parametric amplifier for different pump powers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Gain of low-pump-power parametric interaction in saturated regime for different input signal powers. Pump power is 30mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Power transfer function of the regenerator including the effect of pump-phase modulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

An optical eye pattern of the signal where short-pulse RZ-OOK (ch.1 and ch.3) and RZ-DPSK signals (ch.2 and ch.4) are bit-interleaved multiplexed in the time domain. The eye pattern is that after transmission over 1,600km in a system without regenerators. Averaged signal power launched into the transmission fiber is 1dBm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Examples of electrical eye patterns for (a) OOK and (b) DPSK tributaries. They correspond to ch.1 and ch.2, respectively, in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Maximum transmission distance versus span-input average signal power. The regenerators are inserted every 6 spans (480km) (solid curves) or no regenerators are inserted (dashed curves).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

An optical eye pattern of the signal reshaped by the regenerators inserted every 480km. Transmission distance is 1600km. Averaged signal power launched into the transmission fiber is 1dBm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Electrical eye patters for (a) OOK and (b) DPSK tributaries at the distance of 1600km in a system with the regenerators inserted every 480km.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Eye-opening (EO) degradation versus distance for (a) OOK and (b) DPSK tributaries for Pave =1dBm. The EO degradation is averaged over two tributary channels with the same format in the bit-interleaved multiplexed signal. Insertion period of the regenerators is 1 (solid curves), 3 (dashed curves), 6 (dash-dotted curves), or 9 (solid curves with crosses) spans.

Equations (3)

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T ( t ) = [ T 0 + P in ( t ) P s ] [ 1 + P in ( t ) P s ]
G = 1 + ( γ P 0 g ) 2 sinh 2 ( gz )
g = ( Δβ 2 ) ( Δβ 2 + 2 γ P 0 ) with Δβ = β 2 ω 2 + β 4 ω 4 12 ,

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