Abstract

We describe a new non-contact high capacity optical tagging technique based on the use of nanostructured barcodes. The tags are generated from a number of superimposed diffraction gratings. Capacity for up to 68,000 distinguishable tags has been demonstrated, however current technological capability shall allow encoding of up to 109 distinguishable particles, each of which is only 100μm long.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  2. L. Liu, Z. Huang, and Y. Zhao, "Vibrational spectroscopic encoding of polystyrene-based resin beads: Converting the encoding peaks into barcodes," Spectrochim. Acta A (to be published).
  3. X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).
  6. S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, No 9, 497-504 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, No 9, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berlin, A.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, M.

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bruchez, M. P.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, S.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dejneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dias, J. M.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diaz-Mochon, J. J.

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

Evans, M.

M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Foy, C.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frutos, A. G.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, J.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffith Freeman, R.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, E.

M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).

How, S.

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

Jaiswal, J. K.

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, No 9, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keating, C. D.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, J. T.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koo, T.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahiri, J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattheakis, L. C.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, U.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muzerelle, M.

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, S. M.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Onley, D.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pal, S.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, S.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Powell, C. L.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeve, J.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reiss, B. D.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sewter, C.

M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Seydack, M.

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, S. M.

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, No 9, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. C.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stonas, W. G.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, X.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sundararajan, N.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, M.

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walton, I. D.

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, E.

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. D.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, R. L.

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, M.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yingyongnarongkul, B.

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

Yost, K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, P. K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

L. C. Mattheakis, J. M. Dias, Y. Choi, J. Gong, M. P. Bruchez, J. Liu, and E. Wang, "Optical coding of mammalian cells using semiconductor quantum dots," Anal. Biochem. 327, 200-208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assay Drug Dev. Technol. (1)

M. Evans, C. Sewter, and E. Hill, "An Encoded Particle Array Tool for Multiplex Bioassays," Assay Drug Dev. Technol. 1, 1-9 (2003).

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

M. Seydack, "Nanoparticle labels in immunosensing using optical detection methods," Biosens. Bioelectron. 20, 2454-2469 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. (1)

B. Yingyongnarongkul, S. How, J. J. Diaz-Mochon, M. Muzerelle, M. Bradley, "Parallel and Multiplexed Bead-Based Assays and encoding strategies," Comb. Chem. & High Throughput Screen. 6, 577-587 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

B. D. Reiss, R. Griffith Freeman, I. D. Walton, S. M. Norton, P. C. Smith, W. G. Stonas, C. D. Keating, M. J. Natan, "Electrochemical synthesis and optical readout of stripped metal rods with submicron features," J. Electroanal. Chem. 522, 95-103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Immunol. Methods (1)

S. Pang, J. Smith, D. Onley, J. Reeve, M. Walker, and C. Foy "A comparability study of the emerging protein array platforms with established ELISA procedures," J. Immunol. Methods 302, 253-258 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. (1)

S. X. Wang, S. Bae, G. Li, S. Sun, R. L. White, J. T. Kemp, C. D. Webb, "Towards a magnetic microarray for sensitive diagnostics," J. Magn. and Magn. Mater. 293, 731-736 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

X. Su, J. Zhang, L. Sun, T. Koo, S. Chan, N. Sundararajan, M. Yamakawa, and A. Berlin, "Composite organicinorganic nanoparticles (COINs) with chemically encoded optical signatures," Nano Lett. 5, 49-54 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Muller, and J. Lahiri, "Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes," PNAS 100, 389-393 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trends Cell Biol. (1)

J. K. Jaiswal and S. M. Simon, "Potentials and pitfalls of fluorescent quantum dots for biological imaging," Trends Cell Biol. 14, No 9, 497-504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Liu, Z. Huang, and Y. Zhao, "Vibrational spectroscopic encoding of polystyrene-based resin beads: Converting the encoding peaks into barcodes," Spectrochim. Acta A (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A) first order diffraction from grating with pitch a 1; B) first and second order diffraction from grating with pitch a 2. Higher order diffraction is normally less intense and for encoding applications higher orders may be eliminated by threshold detection; C) first order diffraction from combinatorial grating made by superposition of gratings with pitches a 1 and a 2

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Encoding capacity of a diffractive bar-code tag as a function of the length of the tag for different numbers of superimposed gratings. The number on each curve corresponds to the number of superimposed gratings. The inset shows the level of intensity discrimination S necessary to ensure error-free identification of tags

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of barcode tags of different order: (i) single grating tag; (ii) two superimposed gratings; (iii) three superimposed gratings; (iv) four superimposed gratings (note nano-lithography resolution limiting quality of this grating).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffraction patterns created by a single grating tag (a), and tags containing three different gratings (b). Moving from left to right shows how a progressive decrease in the pitch of one of the gratings changes the diffraction pattern

Metrics