Abstract

The quality factor (Q), mode volume (V eff), and room-temperature lasing threshold of microdisk cavities with embedded quantum dots (QDs) are investigated. Finite element method simulations of standing wave modes within the microdisk reveal that V eff can be as small as 2(λ/n)3 while maintaining radiation-limited Qs in excess of 105. Microdisks with a 2 μm diameter are fabricated in an AlGaAs material containing a single layer of InAs QDs with peak emission at λ = 1317 nm. For devices with V eff ~2 (λ/n)3, Qs as high as 1.2× 105 are measured passively in the 1.4 μm band, using an optical fiber taper waveguide. Optical pumping yields laser emission in the 1.3 μm band, with room temperature, continuous-wave thresholds as low as 1 μW of absorbed pump power. Out-coupling of the laser emission is also shown to be significantly enhanced through the use of optical fiber tapers, with a laser differential efficiency as high as ξ ~ 16% and out-coupling efficiency in excess of 28% measured after accounting for losses in the optical fiber system.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  26. Note that γ = γ⊥ is in general greater than half the total excitonic decay rate (γ∥/2) or radiative decay rate (1/2πsp) for QD excitons, due to near-elastic scattering or dephasing events with, for example, acoustic phonons of the lattice.
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  35. As has been discussed recently in Ref [36] this may not be an accurate model for QD state-filling, but for our simple analysis here it will suffice.
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  38. This estimate was based upon considering Purcell enhancement at RT for QDs spatially and spectrally aligned with the WGMs (FP ~ 6), and suppression of spontaneous emission for QDs spatially and spectrally misaligned from the WGMs (FP ~ 0.4). This simple estimate is consistent with accurate finite-difference time-domain calculations of similar sized microdisks[39].
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    [Crossref]

2005 (11)

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing InAs quantum-dot microdisks with air cladding,” Opt. Express 13, 1615–1620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13, 1515–1530 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nature Materials 4, 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Pask, H. Summer, and P. Blood, “Localized Recombination and Gain in Quantum Dots,” In Tech. Dig. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CThH3, (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 2005).

D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, “General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 13, 5961–5975 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

Z. Zhang and M. Qiu, “Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 12, 3988–3995 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kiraz, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot single-photon sources: Prospects for applications in linear optics quantum-information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 69 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1326–1328 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

H.-Y Ryu, M. Notomi, and Y.-H. Lee, “High-quality-factor and small-mode-volume hexapole modes in photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4294–4296 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

2001 (3)

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Stintz, G. Liu, H. Li, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Low-Threshold Current Density 1.3-μm InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers with the Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 591–593 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, A. Lemaître, C. Dupuis, L. Manin, and J. L. Pelouard, “High-Q wet-etched GaAs microdisks containing InAs quantum boxes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1908–1910 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavi-ties:Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13276–13279 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H. J. Kimble, “Strong Interactions of Single Atoms and Photons in Cavity QED,” Physica Scripta T76, 127–137 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Sosnowski, T. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, “Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.60As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423–R9426 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abram, I.

E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1993).

Akahane, Y.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nature Materials 4, 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L.

L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavi-ties:Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13276–13279 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing InAs quantum-dot microdisks with air cladding,” Opt. Express 13, 1615–1620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1326–1328 (2004).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nature Materials 4, 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Atature, M.

A. Kiraz, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot single-photon sources: Prospects for applications in linear optics quantum-information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R.

Baba, T.

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing InAs quantum-dot microdisks with air cladding,” Opt. Express 13, 1615–1620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1326–1328 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P.

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308(R) (2002).

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

T. Sosnowski, T. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, “Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.60As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423–R9426 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bloch, J.

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blood, P.

H. Pask, H. Summer, and P. Blood, “Localized Recombination and Gain in Quantum Dots,” In Tech. Dig. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CThH3, (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 2005).

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13, 1515–1530 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” submitted for publication (2005)

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-H.

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cirac, J.

J. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1995).

Crooker, S.

Dale, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deppe, D.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

Donati, G.

Dupuis, C.

B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, A. Lemaître, C. Dupuis, L. Manin, and J. L. Pelouard, “High-Q wet-etched GaAs microdisks containing InAs quantum boxes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1908–1910 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dutta, N. K.

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1993).

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

Forchel, A.

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308(R) (2002).

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M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13, 1515–1530 (2005).
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K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
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J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
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A. Stintz, G. Liu, H. Li, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Low-Threshold Current Density 1.3-μm InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers with the Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 591–593 (2000).
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S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
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H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
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J. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
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D. Yarotski, R. Averitt, N. Negre, S. Crooker, A. Taylor, G. Donati, A. Stintz, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Ultrafast carrier-relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1480–1484 (2002).
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A. Stintz, G. Liu, H. Li, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Low-Threshold Current Density 1.3-μm InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers with the Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 591–593 (2000).
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E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
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[Crossref]

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E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
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S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
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E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

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E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
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T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing InAs quantum-dot microdisks with air cladding,” Opt. Express 13, 1615–1620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

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T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13, 1515–1530 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
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K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
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K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities,” Opt. Express 10, 670–684 (2002).
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J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
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M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” submitted for publication (2005)

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L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavi-ties:Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13276–13279 (1999).
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S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pelouard, J. L.

B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, A. Lemaître, C. Dupuis, L. Manin, and J. L. Pelouard, “High-Q wet-etched GaAs microdisks containing InAs quantum boxes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1908–1910 (1999).
[Crossref]

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C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroff, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, M.

Raimond, J.-M.

Reinecke, T.

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reithmaier, J.

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reitzenstein, S.

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robert, I.

E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, H.-Y

H.-Y Ryu, M. Notomi, and Y.-H. Lee, “High-quality-factor and small-mode-volume hexapole modes in photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4294–4296 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sandoghdar, V.

Santori, C.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schekin, O.

T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

Schenkin, Q.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schoenfeld, W.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sek, G.

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senellart, P.

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

Singh, J.

T. Sosnowski, T. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, “Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.60As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423–R9426 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Song, B.-S.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nature Materials 4, 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sosnowski, T.

T. Sosnowski, T. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, “Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.60As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423–R9426 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S.

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, “Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities,” Opt. Express 10, 670–684 (2002).
[PubMed]

Stintz, A.

K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
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D. Yarotski, R. Averitt, N. Negre, S. Crooker, A. Taylor, G. Donati, A. Stintz, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Ultrafast carrier-relaxation dynamics in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1480–1484 (2002).
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A. Stintz, G. Liu, H. Li, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Low-Threshold Current Density 1.3-μm InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers with the Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 591–593 (2000).
[Crossref]

Summer, H.

H. Pask, H. Summer, and P. Blood, “Localized Recombination and Gain in Quantum Dots,” In Tech. Dig. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CThH3, (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 2005).

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

Tatebayashi, J.

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Room temperature continuous wave lasing InAs quantum-dot microdisks with air cladding,” Opt. Express 13, 1615–1620 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1326–1328 (2004).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A.

Thierry-Mieg, V.

E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
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D. Englund, I. Fushman, and J. Vučković, “General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 13, 5961–5975 (2005).
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J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

Weiss, D. S.

Wilcut, E.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiang, W.

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

Yariv, A.

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yarotski, D.

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Zoller, P.

J. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

E. Moreau, I. Robert, J. Gérard, I. Abram, L. Manin, and V. Thierry-Mieg, “Single-mode solid-state photon source based on isolated quantum dots in pillar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2865–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Xu, W. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. Ho, and G. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Gayral, J. M. Gerard, A. Lemaître, C. Dupuis, L. Manin, and J. L. Pelouard, “High-Q wet-etched GaAs microdisks containing InAs quantum boxes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1908–1910 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, T. Johnson, P. Barclay, O. Painter, A. Stintz, and S. Krishna, “Optical loss and lasing characteristics of high-quality-factor AlGaAs microdisk resonators with embedded quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151106 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-Y Ryu, M. Notomi, and Y.-H. Lee, “High-quality-factor and small-mode-volume hexapole modes in photonic-crystal-slab nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4294–4296 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Loffler, J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, C. Hofmann, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Semiconductor quantum dot microcavity pillars with high-quality factors and enlarged dot dimensions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111105 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Ide, T. Baba, J. Tatebayashi, S. Iwamoto, T. Nakaoka, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing characteristics of InAs quantum-dot microdisk from 3K to room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1326–1328 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEE Elec. Lett. (1)

T. Yang, O. Schekin, J. O’Brien, and D. Deppe, “Room temperature, continuous-wave lasing near 1300 nm in microdisks with quantum dot active regions,” IEE Elec. Lett. 39 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Vučković, O. Painter, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, and A. Scherer, “FDTD Calculation of the Spontaneous Emission Coupling Factor in Optical Microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1168–1175 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Stintz, G. Liu, H. Li, L. Lester, and K. Malloy, “Low-Threshold Current Density 1.3-μm InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers with the Dots-in-a-Well (DWELL) structure,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 591–593 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (3)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffer, C. Hoffman, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. Keldysh, V. Kulakovskii, T. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, Q. Schenkin, and D. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Materials (1)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nature Materials 4, 207–210 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Kiraz, M. Atature, and A. Imamoglu, “Quantum-dot single-photon sources: Prospects for applications in linear optics quantum-information processing,” Phys. Rev. A 69 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

K. Srinivasan, A. Stintz, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, “Photoluminescence measurements of quantum-dot-containing semiconductor microdisk resonators using optical fiber taper waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 205318 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J.-M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavi-ties:Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 13276–13279 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Bayer and A. Forchel, “Temperature dependence of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in In0.60Ga0.40As/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 041308(R) (2002).

T. Sosnowski, T. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, “Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.60As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423–R9426 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Cirac, P. Zoller, H. Kimble, and H. Mabuchi, “Quantum state transfer and entanglement distribution among distant nodes in a quantum network,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3221–3224 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, “Triggered Single Photons from a Quantum Dot,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502–1505 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaitre, J. Hours, J. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica Scripta (1)

H. J. Kimble, “Strong Interactions of Single Atoms and Photons in Cavity QED,” Physica Scripta T76, 127–137 (1998).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. Schoenfeld, P. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, “A Quantum Dot Single-Photon Turnstile Device,” Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (9)

M. Borselli, T. Johnson, and O. Painter, “Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics,” submitted for publication (2005)

The average diameter is taken at the center of the slab, or equivalently, is the average of the top and bottom diameters.

Note that γ = γ⊥ is in general greater than half the total excitonic decay rate (γ∥/2) or radiative decay rate (1/2πsp) for QD excitons, due to near-elastic scattering or dephasing events with, for example, acoustic phonons of the lattice.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Photonic crystal nanocavity formed by local width modulation of line-defect with Q of one million,” In LEOS 2005, Post-Deadline Session PD 1.1, (IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005).

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, 1995).

As has been discussed recently in Ref [36] this may not be an accurate model for QD state-filling, but for our simple analysis here it will suffice.

H. Pask, H. Summer, and P. Blood, “Localized Recombination and Gain in Quantum Dots,” In Tech. Dig. Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CThH3, (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, MD, 2005).

G. P. Agrawal and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, 1993).

This estimate was based upon considering Purcell enhancement at RT for QDs spatially and spectrally aligned with the WGMs (FP ~ 6), and suppression of spontaneous emission for QDs spatially and spectrally misaligned from the WGMs (FP ~ 0.4). This simple estimate is consistent with accurate finite-difference time-domain calculations of similar sized microdisks[39].

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a fabricated microdisk device. The disk thickness t=255 nm and sidewall angle θ = 26° from vertical are taken as fixed in the finite-element simulations presented in the work. The measured average diameter for this device (i.e., the diameter at the center of the slab) is ~ 2.12 μm. (b) Finite-element-calculated |E|2 distribution for the TE p=1 m=11 WGM of a microdisk with a diameter of ~ 2.12 μm at the center of the slab. For this mode, λ ~ 1265.41 nm, Q rad ~ 107, and V eff~ 2.8(λ=n)3.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Finite-element method simulation results: (a) Modal volume V eff (left) and radiation-limited cavity quality factor Q rad (right) as a function of microdisk diameter (taken at the center of the slab), calculated for standing wave modes of disks of the shape shown in Fig. 1. The modes studied are TE p=1,m WGMs with resonance wavelength within the 1200 nm band. (b) Coherent coupling rate g/2π (left) and cavity decay rate κ/2π (right) as a function of microdisk diameter. A QD spontaneous emission lifetime τ sp = 1 ns is assumed in the calculation of g.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Ratio of the calculated coupling rate g to the maximum decay rate in the system, max(γ,κ), as a function of the microdisk diameter at the center of the slab. A fixed QD decay rate γ/2π=1 GHz is assumed, and the cavity decay rate κ is taken to be solely due to radiation loss.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Normalized transmission spectrum when a fiber taper is positioned a few hundred nm away from the microdisk edge. (b) Light-in-light-out (L-L) curve for a device operated with free-space collection. The laser threshold absorbed pump power Pth is ~1.0 μW, and its differential efficiency ξ ~ 0.02%. (inset) Spectrum from the device above threshold, showing emission at λ ~ 1345 nm corresponding to the TE p,=1 m=10 WGM.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) (left) L-L curve for another microdisk device operated with free-space collection, with Pth ~ 1.1 μW and ξ ~ 0.1%. (right) Spectrum from the device near laser threshold, showing emission at λ ~ 1330 nm. (b) (left) L-L curve for the same device using an optical fiber taper to collect the emission. Pth has increased to 1.6 μW while ξ, increased to 4% for collection in the forward fiber taper channel. (inset) Optical microscope image of the taper output coupler aligned to the microdisk. (right) Spectrum of the fiber taper collected light below threshold.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

L-L curve experimental data (red circles) and rate-equation model fit (blue line) to data for the fiber taper coupled laser of Fig. 5(b) : (a) log-log plot and (b) linear plot (inset shows deep sub-threshold data and fit). β′ ~ 3% is the spontaneous emission factor estimated directly from the slope change in the data, and thus includes a large non-radiative component, while β ~ 15.5% is the value used in the rate-equation model fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Finite-element calculated TE p,=1 m modes of a D = 2μm microdisk.

Equations (2)

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V eff = V ε ( r ) | E ( r ) | 2 d 3 r max [ ε ( r ) | E ( r ) | 2 ]
g / 2 π = 1 2 τ s p 3 c λ 0 2 τ s p 2 π n 3 V eff ,

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