Abstract

We combine real-time feature recognition with holographic optical tweezers to automatically trap, assemble, and sort micron-sized colloidal particles. Closed loop control will enable new applications of optical micromanipulation in biology, medicine, materials science, and possibly quantum computation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288-290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Force and Velocity Measured for Single Kinesin Molecules," Cell 77, 773-784 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezers in colloid and interface science," Current Opinion Colloid Interface Sci. 2, 264-270 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Sasaki, M. Koshio, H. Misawa, N. Kitamura, and H. Masuhara, "Pattern formation and flow control of fine particles by laser-scanning micromanipulation," Opt. Lett. 16(19), 1463-1465 (1991).
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  6. E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Gluckstad, "Multiple beam optical tweezres generated by the generalized phase contrast method," Opt. Lett. 27, 267 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).
  11. J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).
  12. Arryx, Inc., BioRyx200.
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    [PubMed]
  14. P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
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  15. J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, "Interactive approach to optical tweezers control," Appl. Opt. 45, 897 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237 (1972).
  22. J. E. Curtis, C. H. J. Schmitz, and J. P. Spatz, "Symmetry dependence of holograms for optical trapping," Opt. Lett. 30, 2086 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Reicherter, S. Zwick, T. Haist, C. Kohler, H. Tiziani, and W. Osten, "Fast digital hologram generation and adaptive force measurement in liquid-crystal-display-based holographic tweezers," Appl. Opt. 45, 888 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (5)

J. E. Curtis, C. H. J. Schmitz, and J. P. Spatz, "Symmetry dependence of holograms for optical trapping," Opt. Lett. 30, 2086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 435, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, "Interactive approach to optical tweezers control," Appl. Opt. 45, 897 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

P. J. Rodrigo, R. L. Eriksen, V. R. M. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Interactive light-driven and parallel manipulation of inhomogeneous particles," Opt. Express 10, 1550 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Eriksen, P. C. Mogensen, and J. Gluckstad, "Multiple beam optical tweezres generated by the generalized phase contrast method," Opt. Lett. 27, 267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional Optical Tweezers Using Computer-Generated Holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezers in colloid and interface science," Current Opinion Colloid Interface Sci. 2, 264-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Force and Velocity Measured for Single Kinesin Molecules," Cell 77, 773-784 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Ashkin, A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Force and Velocity Measured for Single Kinesin Molecules," Cell 77, 773-784 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chikkatur, A. P.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 435, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Cooper, J.

Courtial, J.

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, C. H. J. Schmitz, and J. P. Spatz, "Symmetry dependence of holograms for optical trapping," Opt. Lett. 30, 2086 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R.

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daria, V. R. M.

Dearing, M. T.

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Dufresne, E. R.

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Eriksen, R. L.

Gates, J. V.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Gelles, J.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Gibson, G.

Gluckstad, J.

Gorlitz, A.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Grier, D. G.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezers in colloid and interface science," Current Opinion Colloid Interface Sci. 2, 264-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Gustavson, T. L.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Haist, T.

Jopson, R. M.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Jordan, P.

Kang, I.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Karunwi, K.

Kasza, K.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Kitamura, N.

Kohler, C.

Kornblit, A.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Koshio, M.

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laczik, Z. J.

Ladavac, K.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Landick, R.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

Leanhardt, A. E.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Liesener, J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional Optical Tweezers Using Computer-Generated Holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Macdonald, M. P.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuhara, H.

McLellan, H. R.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Misawa, H.

Mogensen, P. C.

Ohta, A. T.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 435, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

Padgett, M.

Pau, S.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Pritchard, D. E.

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Reicherter, M.

Rodrigo, P. J.

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Rodrigo, R. L. Eriksen, V. R. M. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Interactive light-driven and parallel manipulation of inhomogeneous particles," Opt. Express 10, 1550 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sasaki, K.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Schmitz, C. H. J.

Sheets, S. A.

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, G.

Slusher, R. E.

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spatz, J. P.

Svoboda, K.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Force and Velocity Measured for Single Kinesin Molecules," Cell 77, 773-784 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, L.

Tiziani, H.

Tiziani, H. J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional Optical Tweezers Using Computer-Generated Holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. D.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 435, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wulff, K.

Yin, H.

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwick, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. J. Rodrigo, V. R. Daria, and J. Gluckstad, "Four-dimensional optical manipulation of colloidal particles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cell (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, "Force and Velocity Measured for Single Kinesin Molecules," Cell 77, 773-784 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Current Opinion Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezers in colloid and interface science," Current Opinion Colloid Interface Sci. 2, 264-270 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, "Massively parallel manipulation of single cells and microparticles using optical images," Nature 435, 370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional Optical Tweezers Using Computer-Generated Holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical Fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. L. Gustavson, A. P. Chikkatur, A. E. Leanhardt, A. Gorlitz, S. Gupta, D. E. Pritchard, andW. Ketterle, "Transport of Bose-Einstein Condensates with optical tweezers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 020401 (2002).

Quantum Information and Computation (1)

J. Kim, S. Pau, Z. Ma, H. R. McLellan, J. V. Gates, A. Kornblit, R. E. Slusher, R. M. Jopson, I. Kang, and M. Dinu, "System Design for Large-Scale Ion Trap Quantum Information Processor," Quantum Information and Computation 5, 515 (2005).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

E. R. Dufresne and D. G. Grier, "Optical tweezer arrays and optical substrates created with diffractive optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1974 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Dufresne, G. C. Spalding, M. T. Dearing, S. A. Sheets, and D. G. Grier, "Computer-generated Holographic Optical Tweezer Arrays," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1810 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Yin, M. D. Wang, K. Svoboda, R. Landick, S. M. Block, and J. Gelles, "Transcription against an applied force," Science 270, 1653-1657 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Arryx, Inc., BioRyx200.

http://www.eng.yale.edu/softmatter.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (710 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (937 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2279 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Closed Loop HOT. (a) A block diagram of the control system. (b) A schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Avoiding Collisions between Identical Particles. (a) (0.7MB) Twenty-five one-micron silica particles are transformed from “Y” to “LUX” in 3 sec using HOT. (c) Particle trajectories extracted from bright field images using feature recognition methods described in the text. Note that particles move in straight lines unless collisions are detected. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Assembly and Sorting. (a) (0.9MB) Automated assembly of 1.0 µm colloidal silica into a 5×5 grid. (b) (2.2MB) Automated sorting of colloidal silica by size. Scale bar represents 5 µm. Movies are accelerated 4×.

Equations (4)

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exp ( i Φ ( r ) ) ~ FFT 1 [ j = 1 N A j e i θ j δ ( 2 ) ( ρ ρ j ) ] ,
ρ j ( t + τ ) = ρ j ( t ) + s ρ j f ρ j ( t ) ρ j f ρ j ( t ) .
ρ j ( t + τ ) = ρ j ( t ) + s ρ j f ρ j ( t ) ρ j f ρ j ( t ) × z ̂ ,
τ D = 6 π η a 3 k B T ,

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