Abstract

We report a 1.5-µm band polarization independent single photon detector based on frequency up-conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides. To overcome the polarization dependence of the PPLN waveguides, we employed a polarization diversity configuration composed of two up-conversion detectors connected with a polarization beam splitter. We experimentally confirmed polarization independent single photon counting using our detector. We undertook a proof-of-principle differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment using the detector, and confirmed that the sifted key rate and error rate remained stable when the polarization state was changed during single photon transmission.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 µm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433–1445 (2004).
  5. R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sumfrequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1518 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 1725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “10-GHz clock differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment,” Opt. Express 149522 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.
  12. E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Takesue, “1.5-µm photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry with a single-photon detector using up-conversion in a PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 727 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong, and J. Shapiro, “Polarization-independent frequency up-conversion for quantum optical communication,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  23, 918 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Albota, M. A.

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Fejer, M. M.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “10-GHz clock differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment,” Opt. Express 149522 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Takesue, “1.5-µm photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry with a single-photon detector using up-conversion in a PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sumfrequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1518 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.

Gautier, J. D.

Gisin, N.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosinski, S.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Kwiat, P. G.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433–1445 (2004).

Langrock, C.

Parameswaran, K. R.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pruitt, D. L.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Shapiro, J.

Takahashi, H.

Takesue, H.

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vandevender, A. P.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433–1445 (2004).

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Takesue, “1.5-µm photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry with a single-photon detector using up-conversion in a PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 31, 727 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “10-GHz clock differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment,” Opt. Express 149522 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett.,  30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski, and D. L. Pruitt, “Polarisation-insensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433–1445 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature 437, 116–120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD,” New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and Y. Yamamoto, “100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors,” arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of PI-UCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration for changing the input polarization to the PI-UCD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Count rate as function of HWP rotation angle. Squares, diamonds and triangles denote total count rate, the count rate of a UCD for H polarization, and that for V polarization, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Configuration of DPS-QKD experiment.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sifted key rate (squares) and bit error rate (x symbols) of the DPS-QKD experiment as a function of the HWP rotation angle.

Metrics