Abstract

We report a 1.5-µm band polarization independent single photon detector based on frequency up-conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides. To overcome the polarization dependence of the PPLN waveguides, we employed a polarization diversity configuration composed of two up-conversion detectors connected with a polarization beam splitter. We experimentally confirmed polarization independent single photon counting using our detector. We undertook a proof-of-principle differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment using the detector, and confirmed that the sifted key rate and error rate remained stable when the polarization state was changed during single photon transmission.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters," Appl. Opt. 37, 2272-2277 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, "Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 µm by means of frequency upconversion," Opt. Lett. 29, 1449 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433-1445 (2004).
  5. R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz and M. M. Fejer, "Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sumfrequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 29, 1518 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient singlephoton detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and Y. Yamamoto, "10-GHz clock differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment," Opt. Express 149522 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.
  12. E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto and H. Takesue, "1.5-µm photon-counting optical time domain reflectometry with a single-photon detector using up-conversion in a PPLN waveguide," Opt. Lett. 31, 727 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Albota, F. N. C. Wong and J. Shapiro, "Polarization-independent frequency up-conversion for quantum optical communication," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  23, 918 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Honjo, K. Inoue and H. Takahashi, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient singlephoton detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Albota, M. A.

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Fejer, M. M.

Gautier, J. D.

Gisin, N.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters," Appl. Opt. 37, 2272-2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halder, M.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue and H. Takahashi, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue and H. Takahashi, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2797 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosinski, S.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, J. R.

Kwiat, P. G.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433-1445 (2004).

Langrock, C.

Parameswaran, K. R.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pruitt, D. L.

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Shapiro, J.

Takahashi, H.

Takesue, H.

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vandevender, A. P.

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433-1445 (2004).

Waks, E.

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yamamoto, Y.

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes as gated-mode photon counters," Appl. Opt. 37, 2272-2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, S. C.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. Brener, M. H. Chou, E. Chaban, K. R. Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, S. Kosinski and D. L. Pruitt, "Polarisationinsensitive wavelength converter based on cascaded nonlinearities in LiNbO3 waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 66 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1433-1445 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre," New J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Low-jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength QKD," New J. Phys. 832 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential phase shift quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 037902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer and Y. Yamamoto, "100 km secure differential phase shift quantum key distribution with low jitter up-conversion detectors," arXiv: quant-ph/0608110.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of PI-UCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Configuration for changing the input polarization to the PI-UCD.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Count rate as function of HWP rotation angle. Squares, diamonds and triangles denote total count rate, the count rate of a UCD for H polarization, and that for V polarization, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Configuration of DPS-QKD experiment.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sifted key rate (squares) and bit error rate (x symbols) of the DPS-QKD experiment as a function of the HWP rotation angle.

Metrics