Abstract

For the first time laser-induced gratings (LIGs) have been used for the investigation of a non-stationary pulse-repetitive injection process of gaseous propane, C3H8, into air. By recording and evaluating single-shot LIG signals it was possible to determine, on a cycle-averaged basis, the temporal evolution of the local (within a probe volume 300 µm in diameter and 10 mm in length) equivalence ratio and by this the fuel-air ratio. Two different data treatment strategies, subject to C3H8 concentration range, were first tested at stationary conditions and then used to evaluate the LIG signals obtained during the injection process. The relative standard deviation of single-shot measurements were estimated to be 0.14 and 0.32 at 0.8% and 10% of propane concentration, respectively.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Hart, R. J. Balla, and G. C. Herring "Nonresonant referenced laser-induced thermal acoustics thermometry in air," Appl. Opt. 38,577-584 (1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).
  8. B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).
  9. B. Hemmerling and D. N. Kozlov, "Generation and temporally resolved detection of laser-induced gratings by a single, pulsed Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 1001-1007 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. W. Walker, R. B. Williams, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating velocimetry," Opt. Lett. 23,1316-1318 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse," Appl. Phys. B 78,111-117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Simultaneous single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure along a one-dimensional line by use of laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31,1055-1057 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and flow-velocity measurements by use of laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Opt. Lett. 25,1340-1342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. N. Kozlov, "Simultaneous characterization of flow velocity and temperature fields in a gas jet by use of electrostrictive laser-induced gratings," Appl. Phys. B 80,377-387 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Brown and W. L. Roberts, "Single-point thermometry in high-pressure, sooting, premixed combustion environment," J. Propul. Power 15, 119-130 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. S. Brown, Y. Li, W. L. Roberts, and J. R. Gord, "Analysis of transient-grating signals for reacting-flow applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 566-578 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique," Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Simultaneous single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure along a one-dimensional line by use of laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31,1055-1057 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Kozlov, "Simultaneous characterization of flow velocity and temperature fields in a gas jet by use of electrostrictive laser-induced gratings," Appl. Phys. B 80,377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse," Appl. Phys. B 78,111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique," Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Brown, Y. Li, W. L. Roberts, and J. R. Gord, "Analysis of transient-grating signals for reacting-flow applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 566-578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1998 (5)

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).

B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).

D. J. W. Walker, R. B. Williams, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating velocimetry," Opt. Lett. 23,1316-1318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Attal-Trétout, B.

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balla, R. J.

Beyrau, F.

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. S.

M. S. Brown, Y. Li, W. L. Roberts, and J. R. Gord, "Analysis of transient-grating signals for reacting-flow applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 566-578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Brown and W. L. Roberts, "Single-point thermometry in high-pressure, sooting, premixed combustion environment," J. Propul. Power 15, 119-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, W.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, E. B.

Dillmann, M.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, T.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dreizler, A.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ewart, P.

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Simultaneous single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure along a one-dimensional line by use of laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31,1055-1057 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse," Appl. Phys. B 78,111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. W. Walker, R. B. Williams, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating velocimetry," Opt. Lett. 23,1316-1318 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

Hart, R. C.

Heinze, J.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerling, B.

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique," Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and flow-velocity measurements by use of laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Opt. Lett. 25,1340-1342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling and D. N. Kozlov, "Generation and temporally resolved detection of laser-induced gratings by a single, pulsed Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 1001-1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).

Herring, G. C.

Hubschmid, W.

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).

B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jonuscheit, J.

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, J.

Klimenko, D.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, D.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, D. N.

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Kozlov, "Simultaneous characterization of flow velocity and temperature fields in a gas jet by use of electrostrictive laser-induced gratings," Appl. Phys. B 80,377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and flow-velocity measurements by use of laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Opt. Lett. 25,1340-1342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling and D. N. Kozlov, "Generation and temporally resolved detection of laser-induced gratings by a single, pulsed Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 1001-1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, D.N.

B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique," Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwan, W.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Latzel, H.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Loyd, G. M.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neracher, M.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oschwald, M.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radi, P. P.

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, W. L.

M. S. Brown, Y. Li, W. L. Roberts, and J. R. Gord, "Analysis of transient-grating signals for reacting-flow applications," Appl. Opt. 42, 566-578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Brown and W. L. Roberts, "Single-point thermometry in high-pressure, sooting, premixed combustion environment," J. Propul. Power 15, 119-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schenk, M.

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, I.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, T.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni-Panariello, A.

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and flow-velocity measurements by use of laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Opt. Lett. 25,1340-1342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).

Stark, R.

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stel'makh, O. M.

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R.

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Simultaneous single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure along a one-dimensional line by use of laser-induced thermal grating spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31,1055-1057 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse," Appl. Phys. B 78,111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stricker, W.

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. J. W.

Weikl, M. C.

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Weikl, F. Beyrau, J. Kiefer, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and linear Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous temperature and multiple species measurements," Opt. Lett. 31, 1908-1910 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. B.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Temperature measurements in gases using laser-induced electrostrictive gratings," Appl. Phys. B 67,125-130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Stevens and P. Ewart, "Single-shot measurement of temperature and pressure using laser-induced thermal gratings with a long probe pulse," Appl. Phys. B 78,111-117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Kozlov, "Simultaneous characterization of flow velocity and temperature fields in a gas jet by use of electrostrictive laser-induced gratings," Appl. Phys. B 80,377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B. (3)

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings I. Theory," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 101-111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, D. N. Kozlov, P. P. Radi, and B. Hemmerling, "Gas phase diagnostics by laser-induced gratings II. Experiments," Appl. Phys. B. 81, 113-129 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Latzel, A. Dreizler, T. Dreier, J. Heinze, M. Dillmann, W. Stricker, G. M. Loyd, and P. Ewart, "Thermal grating and broadband degenerated four-wave mixing spectroscopy of OH in high-pressure flames," Appl. Phys. B. 67, 667-673 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atomization Sprays (1)

F. Beyrau, M. C. Weikl, I. Schmitz, T. Seeger, and A. Leipertz, "Locally resolved investigation of the vaporization of GDI sprays applying different laser techniques," Atomization Sprays 16, 319-330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (2)

B. Hemmerling and D.N. Kozlov, "Collisional relaxation of singlet O2 (b 1Σ+g) in neat gas investigated by laser-induced grating technique," Chem. Phys. 291, 213-242 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Hemmerling, D. N. Kozlov, O. M. Stel'makh, and B. Attal-Trétout, "Diagnostics of water-containing gas mixtures using thermal laser-induced gratings," Chem. Phys. 320, 103-117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Propul. Power (1)

M. S. Brown and W. L. Roberts, "Single-point thermometry in high-pressure, sooting, premixed combustion environment," J. Propul. Power 15, 119-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

B. Hemmerling, M. Neracher, D. Kozlov, W. Kwan, R. Stark, D. Klimenko, W. Clauss, and M. Oschwald, "Rocket nozzle cold-gas flow velocity measurements using laser-induced gratings," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33,912-918 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

T. Seeger, J. Jonuscheit, M. Schenk, and A. Leipertz, "Simultaneous temperature and relative oxygen and methane concentration measurements in a premixed sooting flame using a novel CARS-technique," J. Mol. Struct. 661-662, 515-524 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Stampanoni-Panariello, B. Hemmerling, and W. Hubschmid, "Electrostrictive generation of nonresonant gratings in the gas phase by multimode lasers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 125-130 (1998).

Pro. Combust. Inst. (1)

B. Hemmerling, W. Hubschmid, and A. Stampanoni-Panariello, "Temperature and mixture fraction measurements in gases by laser-induced electrostrictive grating," Pro. Combust. Inst. 27,69-75 (1998).

Other (1)

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, and D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, (Springer Verlag, Berlin 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the experimental setup. (GP: Glan polarizing prism, T: telescope, BS: beam splitter, PD: trigger photo diode, OS: digital oscilloscope, M: mirror, FL: focusing lens, IC: injection chamber, CC: heatable calibration cell, BD: beam dump, CL: collimating lens, OF: optical fiber, PMT: photomultiplier tube; IF: interference filter).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured single-shot LIG signal with clearly defined interfering electrostrictive and thermal contributions; I1 and I2 are the amplitudes of the first two oscillation peaks employed to derive the propane concentration; (pcell =2 bar; Tcell =335 K). (b) Calibration data used to derive propane concentrations in the range of 0.2–1.6%; (pressure range: 1–4 bar; Tcell =298 K).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Thermal contribution dominated single-shot LIG signal recorded in a 6% of propane in air mixture (pcell =2.7 bar, Tcell =345 K); the oscillation period Tg =79.5 ns is evaluated from the signal profile. (b) Calculated propane concentration dependence of Tg used to define concentrations in the range of 1.6–10%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temporal behavior of the local equivalence ratio during the injection of gaseous propane (red squares: evaluation using the peaks amplitudes ratio; blue circles: evaluation using the oscillation period; dotted line - the level of the average equivalence ratio during the injection pulse). The error bars correspond to the standard deviation of measurements at stationary conditions.

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