Abstract

The spatial distribution of the second-order nonlinearity induced in thermally poled Infrasil silica samples is recorded after thermal annealing experiments. Two regimes have been studied: short and long poling durations. For short poling durations, the observations are in good agreement with a model where only one ion type recombines inside the depletion region. The nonlinear distribution and erasure observed for the other case are well explained by considering the addition of another positive-charged ion injected during the poling process. This second ion acts as a barrier during thermal annealing and reduces the mobility of the first one.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee and S. R. J. Brueck, "Large second-order nonlinearity in poled fused silica," Opt. Lett. 16,1732-1734 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck and R. A. Myers, "Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242,165-176 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russel, "Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?" Opt. Commun. 110,611-614 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli and Y. Quiquempois, "Time evolution of second-order nonlinear profiles induced within thermally poled silica samples," Opt. Lett. 30,1039-1041 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois and G. Martinelli, "Modeling the |x(2) susceptibility time-evolution in thermally poled fused silica," Opt. Express 13,8015-8024 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Mukherjee, R. A. Myers and S. R. J. Brueck, "Dynamics of second-harmonic generation in fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,665-669 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Margulis and F. Laurell, "Interferometric study of poled glass under etching," Opt. Lett. 21,1786-1788 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski and G. Martinelli, "Zero-potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,598-604 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Tomozawa and D.W. Shin, "Charge carrier concentration and mobility of ions in a silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 241,140-148 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2005

2004

O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck and R. A. Myers, "Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242,165-176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Tomozawa and D.W. Shin, "Charge carrier concentration and mobility of ions in a silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 241,140-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

N. Mukherjee, R. A. Myers and S. R. J. Brueck, "Dynamics of second-harmonic generation in fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11,665-669 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russel, "Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?" Opt. Commun. 110,611-614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

Alley, T. G.

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck and R. A. Myers, "Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242,165-176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Carvalho, H. R.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, I. C. S.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deparis, O.

O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ducasse, A.

A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russel, "Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?" Opt. Commun. 110,611-614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

Lacroix, S.

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Le Calvez, A.

A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lelek, M.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lesche, B.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margulis, W.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Margulis and F. Laurell, "Interferometric study of poled glass under etching," Opt. Lett. 21,1786-1788 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinelli, G.

Moreira, M. F.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

Pruneri, V.

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quiquempois, Y.

A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli and Y. Quiquempois, "Time evolution of second-order nonlinear profiles induced within thermally poled silica samples," Opt. Lett. 30,1039-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski and G. Martinelli, "Zero-potential condition in thermally poled silica samples: evidence of a negative electric field outside the depletion layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,598-604 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois and G. Martinelli, "Modeling the |x(2) susceptibility time-evolution in thermally poled fused silica," Opt. Express 13,8015-8024 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russel, "Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?" Opt. Commun. 110,611-614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.W.

M. Tomozawa and D.W. Shin, "Charge carrier concentration and mobility of ions in a silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 241,140-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomozawa, M.

M. Tomozawa and D.W. Shin, "Charge carrier concentration and mobility of ions in a silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 241,140-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Triques, A. L. C.

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Deparis, C. Corbari and P. G. Kazansky, "Enhanced stability of the second-order optical nonlinearity in poled glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,4857-4859 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempois, M. Lelek, H. Zeghlache and G. Martinelli, "Complete characterization of the nonlinear spatial distribution induced in poled silica glass with a submicron resolution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,3623-3625 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, "Dynamics of the second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled silica glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,2687-2689 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. L. C. Triques, I. C. S. Carvalho, M. F. Moreira, H. R. Carvalho, R. Fischer, B. Lesche and W. Margulis, "Time evolution of depletion region in poled silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82,2948-2950 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

A. Le Calvez, E. Freysz and A. Ducasse, "A model for second harmonic generation in poled glasses," Eur. Phys. J. D 1,223-226 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

M. Tomozawa and D.W. Shin, "Charge carrier concentration and mobility of ions in a silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 241,140-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Alley, S. R. J. Brueck and R. A. Myers, "Space charge dynamics in thermally poled fused silica," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242,165-176 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

P. G. Kazansky and P. St. J. Russel, "Thermally poled glass: frozen-in electric field or oriented dipoles?" Opt. Commun. 110,611-614 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

Y. Quiquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, "Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses: Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity," Phys. Rev. A 65,043816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2723 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2246 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SON spatial distributions recorded in a 5 min-poled sample just after poling ( ◦), and after an annealing duration of 5 min ( •), 15 min ( ▴) and 30 min ( ▪). (b) SON spatial distributions recorded in a 100 min-poled sample just after poling ( ◦), and after an annealing duration of 15 min ( •), 30 min ( ◦) and 100 min ( ▪). Please note the different horizontal scales.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Theoretical SON spatial distributions just after poling for a 5 min-poled sample (◦), and after an annealing duration of 5 min (•), 15 min (┄) and 30 min (▪). (b) Theoretical SON spatial distributions just after poling for a 100 min-poled (◦), and after an annealing duration of 15 min (•), 30 min (┄) and 100 min (▪). For the thermal annealing of the 100 min poled samples, the sodium mobility has been divided by 4 as compared to the value reported in table 1. A movie showing the time evolutions of the SONs can be downloaded together with this paper.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of the theoretical electric field within the sample during the annealing experiment. A negative electric field is created outside the depleted region due to the zero potential between the two surfaces of the sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time evolution of the charge concentrations during the annealing experiment (Na+: continuous line, H+ dashed line) for the 5 min poled sample. (a) Initial charge distribution. (b), (c), (d), (e) correspond to annealing durations of respectively 5 min, 15 min, 30 min and 50 min. EB corresponds to the value of the bulk electric field (outside the depletion layer) (2.65 MB).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time evolution of the charge concentrations during the annealing experiment (Na+: continuous line, H+ dashed line) for the 100 min poled sample. (a) Initial charge distribution. (b), (c), (d), (e) correspond to annealing durations of respectively 15 min, 30 min, 100 min and 165 min (2.19 MB).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time evolutions of the theoretical SH signals in the case of sample A(•) and sample B (◦). The incident angle is fixed to the typical value of 60°.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters used to model the time evolution of the χ (2) spatial distribution during the poling process in Infrasil silica samples. The sodium ion is herein assumed to be the rapid positive carrier for sake of clarity.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p H + t | x = 0 = σ E ( x = 0 )
P 2 ω ( θ ) tan 2 ( θ ) · 0 l d x χ ( 2 ) ( x ) exp ( i Δ k x cos θ ) 2

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