Abstract

We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. C. Chan, and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018. (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.
  10. J. Yguerabide, and E. E. Yguerabide, "Resonance light scattering particles as ultrasensitive labels for detection of analytes in a wide range of applications," Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 71-81 (2001).
  11. S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  13. C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells," Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  16. S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Alivisatos, "The use of nanocrystals in biological detection," Nature Biotechnology 22, 47-52 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Pasqualini, and E. Ruoslahti, "Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries," Nature (London) 380, 364-366 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Oldenburg Amy, R. Gunther Jillian, and A. Boppart Stephen, "Imaging magnetically labeled cells with magnetomotive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 747-749. (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, "Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102-1104 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. R. Brown, and M. J. Natan, "Hydroxylamine Seeding of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles in Solution and on Surfaces," Langmuir 14, 726-728 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  38. F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. D. Geoghegan, and G. A. Ackerman, "Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and antiimmunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat antihuman immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25, 1187-1200 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. L. Liu, and H. Elwing, "Complement activation on thiol-modified gold surfaces," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30, 535-541 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. D. Hanahan, and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 100, 57-70 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. A. L. Aden, and M. Kerker, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres," J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242-1246 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  43. P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Physical Review B: Solid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  44. U. Kreibig, "Properties of Small Particles in Insulating Matrices," in Contribution of Clusters Physics to Material Science and Technology From Isolated Clusters to Aggregated Materials, J. Davenas, and P. M. Rabette, eds. (Klewer Academic Publishers, New York, NY, 1986), pp. 373-423.
  45. D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  47. F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proceedings of the IEEE 66, 33 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  48. T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. C. Wilhelm, F. Gazeau, and J. C. Bacri, "Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells," Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 67, 061908/061901-061908/061912 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  50. H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

2006 (7)

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (10)

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

L. Oldenburg Amy, R. Gunther Jillian, and A. Boppart Stephen, "Imaging magnetically labeled cells with magnetomotive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 747-749. (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Loo, L. Hirsch, M.-H. Lee, E. Chang, J. West, N. Halas, and R. Drezek, "Gold nanoshell bioconjugates for molecular imaging in living cells," Opt. Lett. 30, 1012-1014 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alivisatos, "The use of nanocrystals in biological detection," Nature Biotechnology 22, 47-52 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, "Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102-1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yguerabide, and E. E. Yguerabide, "Resonance light scattering particles as ultrasensitive labels for detection of analytes in a wide range of applications," Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 71-81 (2001).

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Hanahan, and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

W. C. Chan, and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Brown, and M. J. Natan, "Hydroxylamine Seeding of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles in Solution and on Surfaces," Langmuir 14, 726-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

R. Pasqualini, and E. Ruoslahti, "Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries," Nature (London) 380, 364-366 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, and H. Elwing, "Complement activation on thiol-modified gold surfaces," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30, 535-541 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proceedings of the IEEE 66, 33 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. D. Geoghegan, and G. A. Ackerman, "Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and antiimmunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat antihuman immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25, 1187-1200 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Physical Review B: Solid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

A. L. Aden, and M. Kerker, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres," J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242-1246 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Aaron, J.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Ackerman, G. A.

W. D. Geoghegan, and G. A. Ackerman, "Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and antiimmunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat antihuman immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25, 1187-1200 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, S. R.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aden, A. L.

A. L. Aden, and M. Kerker, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres," J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242-1246 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Adler-Storthz, K.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, P.

P. Alivisatos, "The use of nanocrystals in biological detection," Nature Biotechnology 22, 47-52 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allemand, J. F.

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, "Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102-1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arap, W.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Aravind, P. K.

P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bao, P. Y.

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barresi, R.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Bensimon, A.

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bensimon, D.

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentolila, L. A.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart Stephen, A.

Bornhop, D. J.

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, K. R.

K. R. Brown, and M. J. Natan, "Hydroxylamine Seeding of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles in Solution and on Surfaces," Langmuir 14, 726-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burt, M.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, K. P.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Carpenter, E. E.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. C.

W. C. Chan, and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, E.

Chmura, A. J.

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-J.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Physical Review B: Solid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chung, B. H.

J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chung, L. W. K.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Condit, C.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Contag, C. H.

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corneillie, T. M.

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croquette, V.

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. E.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Descour, M.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Doose, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Elghanian, R.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellisman, M. H.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, I. H.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwing, H.

L. Liu, and H. Elwing, "Complement activation on thiol-modified gold surfaces," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30, 535-541 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eychmuller, A.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, M.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, D. A.

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Frisen, J.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garimella, V.

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geoghegan, W. D.

W. D. Geoghegan, and G. A. Ackerman, "Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and antiimmunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat antihuman immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25, 1187-1200 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Giepmans, B. N. G.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gopal, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, F.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grecco, H. E.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, W.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.

Gunther Jillian, R.

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T. H.

J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N.

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanahan, D.

D. Hanahan, and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, F. J.

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proceedings of the IEEE 66, 33 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heintzmann, R.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, L.

Hohenau, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holmstroem, N.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, B.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Huang, X.

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, F.

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jares-Erijman, E. A.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarrett, B. R.

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J.

J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Physical Review B: Solid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jonas, M.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Jovin, T. M.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kauzlarich, S. M.

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kehr, J.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

A. L. Aden, and M. Kerker, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres," J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242-1246 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Kershaw, S. V.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. K.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

J. N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, "Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102-1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korgel, B.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumbhar, A.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz Joseph, R.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, W.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larabell, C.

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.

Le, F.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I. H.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-S.

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

Lee, R. T.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Leitner, A.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Letsinger, R. L.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levenson, R. M.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. J.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Licha, K.

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidke, D. S.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liphardt, J.

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

L. Liu, and H. Elwing, "Complement activation on thiol-modified gold surfaces," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30, 535-541 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, G. J.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loo, C.

Lotan, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Louie, A. Y.

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, A. D.

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, J. L.

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

MacAulay, C.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Marshall, F. F.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meares, C. F.

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metiu, H.

P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Michalet, X.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mirkin, C. A.

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkin Chad, A.

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mucic, R. C.

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, U. R.

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muhammed, M.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, C. J.

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, P.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

K. R. Brown, and M. J. Natan, "Hydroxylamine Seeding of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles in Solution and on Surfaces," Langmuir 14, 726-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nida, D.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nie, S.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Chan, and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitzan, A.

P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Connor, C. J.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg, S. J.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oldenburg Amy, L.

Olson, L.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orton, M. S.

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasqualini, R.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Pasqualini, and E. Ruoslahti, "Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries," Nature (London) 380, 364-366 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Petros, J. A.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinaud, F. F.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, J. N.

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rechberger, W.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, B. M.

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Rogach, A.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruoslahti, E.

R. Pasqualini, and E. Ruoslahti, "Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries," Nature (London) 380, 364-366 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiffer, P.

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shahin, A. M.

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simons, J. W.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Soennichsen, C.

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K.

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Spenger, C.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoeva, S. I.

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoeva Savka, I.

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stone, M. B.

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Storhoff, J. J.

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strick, T. R.

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J. Z.

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaresan, G.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylvan, J.

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Tsay, J. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C.-H.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F. H.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, R. A.

D. Hanahan, and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weller, H.

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

West, J.

Westcott, S. L.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whetstone, P. A.

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiemann, J.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. E.

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A. M.

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yguerabide, E. E.

J. Yguerabide, and E. E. Yguerabide, "Resonance light scattering particles as ultrasensitive labels for detection of analytes in a wide range of applications," Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 71-81 (2001).

Yguerabide, J.

J. Yguerabide, and E. E. Yguerabide, "Resonance light scattering particles as ultrasensitive labels for detection of analytes in a wide range of applications," Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 71-81 (2001).

Yoshitake, T.

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

American Journal of Physiology (1)

H. Huang, J. Sylvan, M. Jonas, R. Barresi, P. T. C. So, K. P. Campbell, and R. T. Lee, "Cell stiffness and receptors: Evidence for cytoskeletal subnetworks," American Journal of Physiology 288, C72-C80 (2005).

Analytica Chimica Acta (1)

J. Jeong, T. H. Ha, and B. H. Chung, "Enhanced reusability of hexa-arginine-tagged esterase immobilized on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles," Analytica Chimica Acta 569, 203-209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Analytical Biochemistry (1)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, and R. Lakowicz Joseph, "Fluorescence spectral properties of cyanine dye-labeled DNA oligomers on surfaces coated with silver particles," Analytical Biochemistry 317, 136-146. (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, W. Gu, and C. Larabell, "Quantum Dots as Cellular Probes," inAnnual Review of Biomedical Engineering(2005), pp. 55-76.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. V. Kershaw, M. Burt, M. Harrison, A. Rogach, H. Weller, and A. Eychmuller, "Colloidal CdTe/HgTe quantum dots with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1694-1696 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, and R. Kopelman, "Magnetically modulated optical nanoprobes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1102-1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cancer Research (1)

K. Sokolov, M. Follen, J. Aaron, I. Pavlova, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Real-time vital optical imaging of precancer using anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles," Cancer Research 63, 1999-2004 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) (1)

D. Hanahan, and R. A. Weinberg, "The hallmarks of cancer," Cell (Cambridge, Massachusetts) 100, 57-70 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, "Nanoengineering of optical resonances," Chem. Phys. Lett. 288, 243-247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chemistry of Materials (1)

S.-J. Cho, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, J. E. Davies, K. Liu, F. Grandjean, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Magnetic and Moessbauer Spectral Study of Core/Shell Structured Fe/Au Nanoparticles," Chemistry of Materials 18, 960-967 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Current Opinion in Biotechnology (1)

X. Gao, L. Yang, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, J. W. Simons, and S. Nie, "In vivo molecular and cellular imaging with quantum dots," Current Opinion in Biotechnology 16, 63-72 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Measuring cellular structure at submicrometer scale with light scattering spectroscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 887-893 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. L. Aden, and M. Kerker, "Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Two Concentric Spheres," J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242-1246 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. J. Bornhop, C. H. Contag, K. Licha, and C. J. Murphy, "Advance in contrast agents, reporters, and detection," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 106-110. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (1)

L. Liu, and H. Elwing, "Complement activation on thiol-modified gold surfaces," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 30, 535-541 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (1)

J. Yguerabide, and E. E. Yguerabide, "Resonance light scattering particles as ultrasensitive labels for detection of analytes in a wide range of applications," Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 71-81 (2001).

Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (1)

W. D. Geoghegan, and G. A. Ackerman, "Adsorption of horseradish peroxidase, ovomucoid and antiimmunoglobulin to colloidal gold for the indirect detection of concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin and goat antihuman immunoglobulin G on cell surfaces at the electron microscopic level: a new method, theory and application," Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 25, 1187-1200 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal of Molecular Recognition (1)

C. F. Meares, A. J. Chmura, M. S. Orton, T. M. Corneillie, and P. A. Whetstone, "Molecular tools for targeted imaging and therapy of cancer," Journal of Molecular Recognition 16, 255-259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal of Solid State Chemistry (1)

J. Lin, W. Zhou, A. Kumbhar, J. Wiemann, J. Fang, E. E. Carpenter, and C. J. O'Connor, "Gold-Coated Iron (Fe@Au) Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetic Field-Induced Self-Assembly," Journal of Solid State Chemistry 159, 26-31 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Journal of the American Chemical Society (2)

S. I. Stoeva, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and C. A. Mirkin, "Three-Layer Composite Magnetic Nanoparticle Probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Stoeva Savka, F. Huo, J.-S. Lee, and A. Mirkin Chad, "Three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticle probes for DNA," Journal of the American Chemical Society 127, 15362-15363. (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

K. R. Brown, and M. J. Natan, "Hydroxylamine Seeding of Colloidal Au Nanoparticles in Solution and on Surfaces," Langmuir 14, 726-728 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nano Letters (3)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Nanorice: A Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructure," Nano Letters 6, 827-832 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Lyon, D. A. Fleming, M. B. Stone, P. Schiffer, and M. E. Williams, "Synthesis of Fe Oxide Core/Au Shell Nanoparticles by Iterative Hydroxylamine Seeding," Nano Letters 4, 719-723 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Surface plasmon resonance scattering and absorption of anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles in cancer diagnostics: Applications in oral cancer," Nano Letters 5, 829-834 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

J. Oh, M. Feldman, J. Kim, C. Condit, S. Emelianov, and T. E. Milner, "Detection of magnetic nanoparticles in tissue using magneto-motive ultrasound " Nanotechnology 17, 8 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Cho, B. R. Jarrett, A. Y. Louie, and S. M. Kauzlarich, "Gold-coated iron nanoparticles: a novel magnetic resonance agent for T1 and T2 weighted imaging," Nanotechnology 17, 640-644 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Wang, I. H. Lee, N. Holmstroem, T. Yoshitake, D. K. Kim, M. Muhammed, J. Frisen, L. Olson, C. Spenger, and J. Kehr, "Magnetic resonance tracking of nanoparticle labelled neural stem cells in a rat's spinal cord," Nanotechnology 17, 1911-1915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

R. Pasqualini, and E. Ruoslahti, "Organ targeting in vivo using phage display peptide libraries," Nature (London) 380, 364-366 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Biotech. (1)

J. J. Storhoff, A. D. Lucas, V. Garimella, P. Y. Bao, and U. R. Mueller, "Homogeneous detection of unamplified genomic DNA sequences based on colorimetric scatter of gold nanoparticle probes," Nature Biotech. 22, 883-887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

C. Soennichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, "A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles," Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741-745 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Biotechnology (4)

M. Han, X. Gao, J. Z. Su, and S. Nie, "Quantum-dot-tagged microbeads for multiplexed optical coding of biomolecules," Nature Biotechnology 19, 631-635 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Alivisatos, "The use of nanocrystals in biological detection," Nature Biotechnology 22, 47-52 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nature Biotechnology 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Lidke, P. Nagy, R. Heintzmann, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, J. N. Post, H. E. Grecco, E. A. Jares-Erijman, and T. M. Jovin, "Quantum dot ligands provide new insights into erbB/HER receptor-mediated signal transduction," Nature Biotechnology 22, 198-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) (1)

V. Ntziachristos, C.-H. Tung, C. Bremer, and R. Weissleder, "Fluorescence molecular tomography resolves protease activity in vivo," Nature Medicine (New York, NY, United States) 8, 757-761 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 220, 137-141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Physical Review B: Solid State (1)

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Physical Review B: Solid State 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

F. J. Harris, "On the Use of Windows for Harmonic Analysis with the Discrete Fourier Transform," Proceedings of the IEEE 66, 33 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. Elghanian, J. J. Storhoff, R. C. Mucic, R. L. Letsinger, and C. A. Mirkin, "Selective colorimetric detection of polynucleotides based on the distance-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles," Science 277, 1078-1080 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Chan, and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (Washington, D. C.) (1)

T. R. Strick, J. F. Allemand, D. Bensimon, A. Bensimon, and V. Croquette, "The elasticity of a single supercoiled DNA molecule," Science (Washington, D. C.) 271, 1835-1837 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (Washington, DC, United States) (2)

X. Michalet, F. F. Pinaud, L. A. Bentolila, J. M. Tsay, S. Doose, J. J. Li, G. Sundaresan, A. M. Wu, S. S. Gambhir, and S. Weiss, "Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 307, 538-544 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. G. Giepmans, S. R. Adams, M. H. Ellisman, and R. Y. Tsien, "The Fluorescent Toolbox for Assessing Protein Location and Function," Science (Washington, DC, United States) 312, 217-224 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surface Science (1)

P. K. Aravind, A. Nitzan, and H. Metiu, "The interaction between electromagnetic resonances and its role in spectroscopic studies of molecules adsorbed on colloidal particles or metal spheres," Surface Science 110, 189-204 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment (1)

K. Sokolov, J. Aaron, B. Hsu, D. Nida, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, C. MacAulay, K. Adler-Storthz, B. Korgel, M. Descour, R. Pasqualini, W. Arap, W. Lam, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer," Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment 2, 491-504 (2003).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

C. Wilhelm, F. Gazeau, and J. C. Bacri, "Rotational magnetic endosome microrheology: Viscoelastic architecture inside living cells," Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 67, 061908/061901-061908/061912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Kreibig, "Properties of Small Particles in Insulating Matrices," in Contribution of Clusters Physics to Material Science and Technology From Isolated Clusters to Aggregated Materials, J. Davenas, and P. M. Rabette, eds. (Klewer Academic Publishers, New York, NY, 1986), pp. 373-423.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (15728 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

TEM images of 9nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles before (A) and after (B) deposition of the metallic gold layer. Images were collected at 80keV acceleration and 180,000× direct magnification. Scale bars are 200nm. In (C), UV-Vis extinction spectra are shown of a suspension of 9nm Fe2O3 nanoparticles (blue) and the same suspension after deposition of ca. 20nm gold layer (pink). Bare Fe2O3 particles show typical inverse-power law type extinction properties. The addition of gold to the surface results in the appearance of a characteristic plasmon resonance peak at ca. 540nm. In (D), theoretical simulations show the relative contribution of absorption (pink) and scattering (blue) to the total extinction (black) of the nanoparticles. The calculated maximum wavelengths for absorption, extinction, and scattering are 534nm, 537nm, and 550nm, respectively and include the effect of particle size distribution as determined by TEM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. Cells were mounted on a microscope slide and imaged in reflected darkfield mode using a Leica DM 6000 upright microscope. A solenoid electromagnet with a cone-shaped ferrite core was attached to a programmable piezoelectric translation stage, and placed beneath the sample stage. Translation stage motion oscillated in a sinusoidal fashion with a user-definable amplitude and frequency. The magnet was powered by a power supply and amplifier delivering up to 960 W. The solenoid and motorized translation stage assembly was mechanically isolated from the microscope, which sat on a vibration isolation table.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Darkfield images of a 1:1:1 mixture of A-431 cells labeled with 40nm anti-EGFR gold nanoparticles (indicated by green arrows), 50nm anti-EGFR gold/iron oxide nanoparticles (indicated by red arrows), and unlabeled cells (indicated by blue arrows) obtained using: (A) white light illumination; and (B) a 630±15nm bandpass filter. Images were acquired with a 20x darkfield/brightfield objective with a 0.5 collection NA. (C) Scattering spectra of cells labeled with 50 nm hybrid nanoparticles (red line), 40nm pure gold nanoparticles (green line) and of unlabeled cells (blue line). A fluorescent tag (AlexaFluor 488, Molecular Probes) was attached to the pure gold-antibody conjugates in order to differentiate between the two types of labeled cells.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AVI file showing the magnetically induced movement of gold-iron oxide nanoparticle labeled A-431 cells captured under 20× magnification. Note no movement of unlabeled cells (which appear dim) and pure-gold labeled cells (identified by the overlaid green fluorescence signal); the magnetically labeled cell clearly responds to the oscillating magnetic field by fluctuating laterally in the horizontal direction, and also by translating in the vertical direction toward the ferrite tip which is located outside and above the field of view shown in this figure. The cell also shows some “rocking” movement which is a result of variations in the magnetic force in z-direction with movement of the solenoid. Because the cell has unevenly distributed magnetic gold nanoparticles it creates a net torque that forces cell to “rock”. Images were captured and replayed at 10 frames per second. The movie shows approximately 4 oscillations of the solenoid. [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Monochrome images of a 1:1:1 mixture of A-431 cells labeled with 40nm anti-EGFR gold nanoparticles (green arrows), 50nm anti-EGFR gold/iron oxide nanoparticles (red arrows), and unlabeled cells (blue arrows) that were magnetically actuated at 0.9Hz (A) and 1.9Hz (B) before application of a digital frequency filter. The images were obtained using a 635/15nm bandpass filter. Sections (C) and (D) show power spectra that are taken from the time-domain Fourier transform in the region containing a cell labeled with 50nm gold/iron oxide particles (red), 40nm pure gold particles (green) and an unlabeled cell (blue). Note the prominent peaks in the magnetically-labeled cells’ frequency spectra that correspond to the translation stage oscillation frequencies of 0.9Hz (C) and 1.9Hz (D). Sections (E) and (F) show the same fields of view as sections (A) and (B), respectively, after digital filtering at 0.9Hz (E) and 1.9Hz (F) uses the Hanning function implementation. Only magnetically labeled cells are visible.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

In (A), pixel intensity profiles are shown for the three cell types: 50nm gold/iron oxide labeled (red line), 40nm pure gold labeled (green line), and unlabeled (blue line). Profiles are drawn for the same three cells captured using white light illumination, 635/15nm bandpass illumination, as well as bandpass plus magnetic actuation and digital frequency filtering. In (B) and (C), the relative average pixel intensity from n>10 cells in each cell population and illumination/acquisition condition is compared. Asterisks and brackets in (B) and (C) indicate a statistical significant difference of the average signal values with p<10-4.

Metrics