Abstract

The spatial coherence of a 13.2 nm transient collisional Ni-like Cd soft X-ray laser pumped at 23 degrees grazing incidence was measured in a series of Young’s double-slit experiments. We observed pronounced fringe visibility variations associated with microstructures in the beam’s intensity profile. The transverse coherence length was measured to be about 1/20 of the beam diameter and did not significantly improve with longer plasma columns. The equivalent incoherent source size is determined to be 10 µm and the laser’s peak spectral brightness ~3×1023 photons/sec/mm2/mrad2 within less than 0.01% spectral bandwidth.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).
  23. P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers," Phys. Today,  58, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, "Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm," Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

A. Lucianetti, K. A. Janulewicz, R. Kroemer, G. Priebe, J. Tümmler, W. Sandner, P. V. Nickles, and V. I. Redkorechev, "Transverse spatial coherence of a transient nickel like silver soft-x-ray laser pumped by a single picosecond laser pulse," Opt. Lett. 29, 881-883 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

1998 (1)

P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

R. A. London, M. Strauss and M. D. Rosen, "Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563-566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. A. London, "Beam optics of exploding foil plasma x-ray lasers," Phys. Fluids 31, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Alessi, D.

Amendt, P.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, "Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm," Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, "Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm," Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Berrill, M.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, C.

Brizuela, F.

Cassou, K.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Chang, Z.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, W.

Christov, I. P.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers," Phys. Today,  58, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, J.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, M.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Gasparyan, P. D.

P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, K. A.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Granados, E.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guilbaud, O.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Harteneck, B. D.

Hasegawa, N.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoef, B.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Jackson, K.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Janulewicz, K. A.

Joyeux, D.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers," Phys. Today,  58, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazamias, S.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Keenan, R.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishimoto, M.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Kroemer, R.

Lagron, J.-C.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Larotonda, M. A.

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechantre, Y.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, "Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm," Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

London, R. A.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, M. Strauss and M. D. Rosen, "Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563-566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, "Beam optics of exploding foil plasma x-ray lasers," Phys. Fluids 31, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucianetti, A.

Luther, B. M.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M. C.

Menoni, C. S.

Mima, K.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mistry, P.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Morlens, A.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Mosesson, S.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murai, K.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers," Phys. Today,  58, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, K.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P. P.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Nickles, P. V.

Nishihara, K.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishikino, M.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, T.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patel, D.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, P. K.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phalippou, D.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Price, D. F.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priebe, G.

Redkorechev, V. I.

Rekawa, S.

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Rekawa, S. B.

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M. D.

R. A. London, M. Strauss and M. D. Rosen, "Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563-566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

Seminario, M.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Shakya, M. M.

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlyaptsev, V N.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. F.

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starikov, F. A.

P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Starostin, A. N.

P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, M.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, M. Strauss and M. D. Rosen, "Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563-566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukegawa, K.

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tai, R.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, H.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomasel, F. G.

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Tümmler, J.

Vaschenko, G.

Wang, Y.

G. Vaschenko, C. Brewer, F. Brizuela, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, C. S. Menoni, E. H. Anderson, W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, Y. Liu, D. T. Attwood, "Sub-38 nm resolution tabletop microscopy with 13 nm wavelength laser light,"Opt. Lett. 31, 1214-1216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Larotonda, Y. Wang, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, and J. J. Rocca, M. M. Shakya, S. Gilbertson, and Z. Chang, "Pulse duration measurements of grazing incidence pumped high repetition rate Ni-like Ag and Cd transient soft x-ray lasers," Opt. Lett., (2006), In press
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Luther, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, M. C. Marconi, J. J. Rocca, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, "Saturated high-repetition-rate 18.9-nm tabletop laser in nickellike molybdenum," Opt. Lett. 30, 165-167 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, M. Berrill, and D. Alessi, "Saturated 13.2 nm high-repetition-rate laser in nickellike cadmium", Opt. Lett. 30, 2581-2583 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, G. Jamelot, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, "Origin of microstructures in picosecond X-ray laser beams," Europhys. Lett. 74, 823-829, (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

A. Klisnick, O. Guilbaud, D. Ros, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, G. Jamelot, J.-C. Lagron, D. Joyeux, D. Phalippou, Y. Lechantre, M. Edwards, P. Mistry, and G. J. Tallents, "Experimental study of the temporal coherence and spectral profile of the 13.9nm transient X-ray laser," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 370-380 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B (1)

K. A. Goldberg, P. Naulleau, P. Denham, S. B. Rekawa, K. Jackson, E. H. Anderson and J. A. Liddle, "At-wavelength alignment and testing of the 0.3 NA MET optics," J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 22, 2956-2961 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Tang, H. Daido, M. Kishimoto, K. Sukegawa, R. Tai, S. Mosesson, M. Tanaka, P. Lu, T. Kawachi, K. Nagashima, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, K. Murai, H. Takenaka, Y. Kato, K. Mima, K. Nishihara, "Spatial coherence measurement of 13.9 nm Ni-like Ag soft x-ray laser pumped by a 1.5 ps, 20 J Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 443-448 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, "Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm," Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Fluids (1)

R. A. London, "Beam optics of exploding foil plasma x-ray lasers," Phys. Fluids 31, 184 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Nishikino, M. Tanaka, K. Nagashima, M. Kishimoto, M. Kado, T. Kawachi, K. Sukegawa, Y. Ochi, N. Hasegawa, and Y. Kato, "Demonstration of a soft-x-ray laser at 13.9 nm with full spatial coherence," Phys. Rev. A 68, 061802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. Seminario, F. G. Tomasel, C. Chang, J. J. Rocca, and D. T. Attwood, "Achievement of essentially full spatial coherence in a high-average-power soft-x-ray laser," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033802 (2001).

Y. Wang, M. A. Larotonda, B. M. Luther, D. Alessi, M. Berrill, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and J. J. Rocca, "Demonstration of high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray lasers with saturated output at wavelengths down to 13.9 nm and gain down to 10.9 nm," Phys. Rev. A 72, 053807 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, "Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence," Phys. Rev. A. 53, R23-R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. A. London, M. Strauss and M. D. Rosen, "Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563-566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, M. A. Larotonda, M. Berrill, B. M. Luther, D. Patel, C. S. Menoni and J. J. Rocca, "High brightness injection seeded soft x-ray laser amplifier using a solid target," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,123901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Keenan, J. Dunn, P. K. Patel, D. F. Price, R. F. Smith, and V N. Shlyaptsev, "High-repetition-rate grazing-incidence pumped x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane and I. P. Christov, "Extreme Nonlinear Optics: Coherent X Rays from Lasers," Phys. Today,  58, 39-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Usp. (1)

P. D. Gasparyan, F. A. Starikov and A. N. Starostin, "Angular divergence and spatial coherence of X-ray laser radiation," Phys. Usp. 41, 761-792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldberg, E. H. Anderson, P. Denham, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, A. Morlens, and S. Rekawa, "EUV microexposures at the ALS using the 0.3-NA MET projection optics," Microlithography 2005, paper [5751-04]. i.b.Proc. SPIE 5374, 881-891 (2004).

Other (4)

Y. Liu, A. Barty, E. Gullikson, J. S. Taylor, J. A. Liddle, and O. Wood, "A dual-mode actinic EUV mask inspection tool," in Emerging Lithographic Technologies IX, R. Scott Mackay, ed., Proc. SPIE 5751, 660-669 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Edition (Cambridge University Press,1999)

P. P. Naulleau, "Advanced EUV Lithography capabilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source," Proceedings, SEMI Technology Symposium 2004.

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, 1999)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Young’s double-slit experiment setup for measuring the spatial coherence of a 13.2 nm soft x-ray laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). A typical two-slit interferogram recorded by the CCD for a 30 µm slit separation. The double-slit is placed horizontally (x-direction). (b) Integration of (a) in the vertical direction, which gives a lineout of the laser beam intensity profile. Intensity irregularities, or microstructures, are clearly observed. (c) Integration of (a) in the horizontal direction, which gives an ‘average’ interference pattern, whose fringe visibility is a measure of the spatial coherence.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a).-3 (c). Interference fringes with average visibility (red), obtained by integrating the whole interferogram, and fringes with highest visibility (blue), picked by manually scanning the interferogram. For comparison the fringe patterns are normalized in intensity and overlap each other. The slit separations are (a) 30, (b) 50, and (c) 75 µm. (d) Experimental data (Δ,∇) of fringe visibilities at different slit separations and theoretical predictions based on van Cittert-Zernike theorem. The source size is 10 µm [blue, corresponding to highest visibilities in (a-c)] and 15 µm (red, corresponding to average visibilities).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparisons of beam intensity lineout (a) and integrated interference pattern (b) when the Cd target length is 2 mm (blue) and 4 mm (red). The CCD readouts are not normalized, thus providing a real comparison of beam intensity. There is no noticeable improvement of either spatial coherence, or beam quality when the target length is longer.

Equations (1)

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V = 2 I 1 I 2 I 1 + I 2 μ 12

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