Abstract

A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Miyashita and T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SID 31, 249–254 (1990).
  2. Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).
  5. I. N. Kompanetsa and S. A. Gonchukov, “Volumetric displays,” in Current Research on Image Processing for 3D Information Displays, V. V. Petrov, ed., Proc. SPIE5821, 125–136 (2005).
  6. A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using varifocal mirror oscillations,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. C.-C. Tsao and J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Miyazaki and K. Matsushita, “Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3354–3358 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Miyazaki, M. Lasher, and Y. Fainman, “Fluorescent volumetric display excited by a single infrared beam,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5281–5285 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. W. Tyler and R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV. Validity of the Ferry-Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7, 743–758 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Miyazaki, M. Lasher, and Y. Fainman, “Fluorescent volumetric display excited by a single infrared beam,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5281–5285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

C. W. Tyler and R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV. Validity of the Ferry-Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7, 743–758 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. Miyashita and T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SID 31, 249–254 (1990).

1967 (1)

Acantilado, N.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).

Chen, J.

C.-C. Tsao and J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dahlke, W.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dorval, R. K.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Emoto, M.

M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Favalora, G. E.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gonchukov, S. A.

I. N. Kompanetsa and S. A. Gonchukov, “Volumetric displays,” in Current Research on Image Processing for 3D Information Displays, V. V. Petrov, ed., Proc. SPIE5821, 125–136 (2005).

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hamer, R. D.

C. W. Tyler and R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV. Validity of the Ferry-Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7, 743–758 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hanazato, A.

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kompanetsa, I. N.

I. N. Kompanetsa and S. A. Gonchukov, “Volumetric displays,” in Current Research on Image Processing for 3D Information Displays, V. V. Petrov, ed., Proc. SPIE5821, 125–136 (2005).

Lasher, M.

D. Miyazaki, M. Lasher, and Y. Fainman, “Fluorescent volumetric display excited by a single infrared beam,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5281–5285 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, K.

McDonald, M.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miyashita and T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SID 31, 249–254 (1990).

Miyazaki, D.

Napoli, J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Niida, T.

M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nojiri, Y.

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

Okano, F.

M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).

Soltan, P.

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Traub, A. C.

Tsao, C.-C.

C.-C. Tsao and J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tyler, C. W.

C. W. Tyler and R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV. Validity of the Ferry-Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7, 743–758 (1990).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

T. Miyashita and T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SID 31, 249–254 (1990).

Yamanoue, H.

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Disp. Tech. (1)

M. Emoto, T. Niida, and F. Okano, “Repeated vergence adaptation causes the decline of visual functions in watching stereoscopic television,” J. Disp. Tech. 1, 328–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

C. W. Tyler and R. D. Hamer, “Analysis of visual modulation sensitivity. IV. Validity of the Ferry-Porter law,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A7, 743–758 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 480–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SID (1)

T. Miyashita and T. Uchida, “Cause of fatigue and its improvement in stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SID 31, 249–254 (1990).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI, A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas, eds., Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273, 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

Y. Nojiri, H. Yamanoue, A. Hanazato, M. Emoto, and F. Okano, “Visual comfort/discomfort and visual fatigue caused by stereoscopic HDTV viewing,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XI; A. J. Woods, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, and M. T. Bolas; eds., Proc. SPIE5291, 303–313(2004).
[Crossref]

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000).

I. N. Kompanetsa and S. A. Gonchukov, “Volumetric displays,” in Current Research on Image Processing for 3D Information Displays, V. V. Petrov, ed., Proc. SPIE5821, 125–136 (2005).

P. Soltan, M. Lasher, W. Dahlke, N. Acantilado, and M. McDonald, “Laser-projected 3-D volumetric displays,” in Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE3057, 496–506 (1997).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Tsao and J. Chen, “Volumetric display by moving screen projection with a fast-switching spatial light modulator,” in Projection Displays IV, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE3296, 191–197 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 Million-voxel volumetric display,” in Cockpit Displays IX: Displays for Defense Applications, D. G. Hopper, ed., Proc. SPIE4712, 300–312 (2002).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (92 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the volumetric display system using an inclined 2D display device and a mirror scanner.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The relationship of the 3D image region and the movement of the inclined image plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the volumetric display system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the volumetric display system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Square wave shapes displayed on the vector-scan CRT monitor with frequencies of (a) 2.2 MHz and (b) 5.8 MHz.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Frequency response of vector-scan CRT monitor.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Three-dimensional images formed with the volumetric display. The 3D images were viewed (a) from the front and (b) from the left at an oblique angle.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(100KB) Movie of a volumetric image of a spinning human skull.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the proposed method with conventional volumetric displays.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d = a + c tan θ ,
r = f g ( a + c tan θ ) .
l o = s l m f l i .
l o = s ( D l i ) f l i .

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