Abstract

Upconversion spectra of Er/Tm codoped NaY(WO4)2 crystal excited by 974nm laser is investigated. Intensive 520nm/550nm and 800nm emissions are observed. Three-photon process at high pumping power is presented in the green upconversion. A model is proposed that the three-photon process is actualized by the energy indirect sensitization between two Er3+ ions and one Tm3+ ion, via excited state absorption and two cross relaxations. Two Er3+ ions totally absorb three 974nm photons, emitting one green photon, and Tm3+ ion plays the role of temporary energy storage in this process.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. C. Jones and S. N. Houde-Walter, "Upconversion mechanisms in an erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,825-830 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).
  5. H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (2)

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Shen, B. Richards and A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers," Opt. Express 14,5050-5054 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

G. C. Jones and S. N. Houde-Walter, "Upconversion mechanisms in an erbium-doped transparent glass ceramic," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,825-830 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

2001 (1)

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127,750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37,511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbosa, L. C.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouffard, M.

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

César, C. L.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

Cheng, Z.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. X.

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

Chillcce, E. F.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duvaut, T.

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, B.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sole, J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gudel, H.U.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houde-Walter, S. N.

Huang, S. H.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Jones, G. C.

Jouart, J. P.

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127,750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Khaidukov, N. M.

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kong, X. G.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Z.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I. R.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mendez-Ramos, J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, F. Z.

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moreira, W. C.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neves, A. A. R.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Q. H.

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37,511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peng, T.

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. S.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W. P.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

Rodriguez, E.

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V. D.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shang, M. R.

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. X.

Shen, X.

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. W.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B. J.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. F.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T. F.

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. M.

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. S.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Song, G. Y. Zhang, M. R. Shang, H. Tan, J. Yang, and F. Z. Meng, "Three-photon phenomena in the upconversion luminescence of erbium-ytterbium-codoped phosphate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79,1748-1750 (2001).
[CrossRef]

CH ED (1)

F. Song, H. Tan, M. R. Shang, G. Y. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng and H. C. Chen, "Spectra characteristics of Er3+ doped NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Acta. Phys. Sin.-CH ED 51, 2375-2379 (2002).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Jouart, M. Bouffard, T. Duvaut, and N. M. Khaidukov, "Photon avalanche upconversion in LiKYF5 crystals doubly doped with Tm3+ and Er3+," Chem. Phys. Lett. 366,62-66 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37,511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

G. S. Qin, W. P. Qin, C. F. Wu, D. Zhao, J. S. Zhang, S. Z. Lu, S. H. Huang and W. Xu, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped germanate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347,52-55 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Song, J. Su, H. Tan, L. Han, B. Fu, J. Tian, G. Zhang, Z. Cheng and H. Chen, "The energy transfer processes between the Er3+ and Tm3+ in Er, Tm-codoped-NaY(WO4)2 crystal," Opt. Commun. 241,455-463 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Tech. (1)

E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, A. A. R. Neves, W. C. Moreira, C. L. César and L. C. Barbosa, "Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped tellurite fibers for broadband optical fiber amplifier around 1550 nm band," Opt. Fiber Tech. 12,185-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero and J. Garcia-Sole, "Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions," Opt. Mater. 22,327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

X. Shen, Q. H. Nie, T. F. Xu, T. Peng, and Y. Gao, "Green and red upconversion emission and energy-transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in tellurite glasses," Phys. Lett. A 332,101-106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127,750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner and H.U. Gudel, "Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence," Phys. Rev. B 71,125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. W. Song, B. J. Sun, T. Wang, S. Z. Lu, L. M. Yang, B. J. Chen, X. J. Wang and X. G. Kong, "Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria," Solid State Commun. 132,409-413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jorgensen, in Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths. (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1977).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, in Laser Crystals: their physics and properties. (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York, 1981).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Upconversion spectra of Er:Tm:NYW excited by 974nm laser diode

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Log-log plots for dependency of 550nm green emission intensity on pumping power for Er:Tm:NYW

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy level diagram and transition mechanism of Er3+ and Tm3+

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Energy-transfer rates of cross relaxations calculated by Dexter’s theory

Equations (1)

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P = 8 π 2 e 4 S 0 3 h 2 c g i g k R 6 ( n 2 + 2 3 n ) 4 · λ = 2,4,6 Ω λ S i , L i , J i , U ( λ ) S j , L j , J j 2 · λ = 2,4,6 Ω λ S k , L k , J k U ( λ ) S e , L e , J e 2 ,

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