Abstract

We design novel photonic crystal slab heterostructures, substituting the air in the holes with materials of refractive index higher than n=1. This can be achieved by infiltrating the photonic crystal slab (PCS) with liquid crystal, polymer or nano-porous silica. We find that the heterostructures designed in this way can have quality factors up to Q=10 6. This high-Q result is comparable with the result of previously reported designs in which the lattice is elongated in one direction. Unlike conventional heterostructures, our design does not require nanometre-scale changes in the geometry. Additionally, infiltrated PCS can be constructed at any time after PCS fabrication.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities, " Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, "Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2575-2577 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (5)

2005 (5)

2004 (3)

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, and M. Qiu, "Small-volume waveguide-section high Q microcavities in 2D photonic crystal slabs," Opt. Express 12, 3988-3995 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, and S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300,1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H-G. Park, J-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H-Y Ryu, Y-h. Lee, J-S. Kim, "Nondegenerate monopole-mode two-dimensional photonic band gap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032-3034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, and S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300,1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bin, F.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities, " Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Deng, Z.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, D.

Grillet, C.

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

H-G. Park, J-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H-Y Ryu, Y-h. Lee, J-S. Kim, "Nondegenerate monopole-mode two-dimensional photonic band gap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032-3034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J-K.

H-G. Park, J-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H-Y Ryu, Y-h. Lee, J-S. Kim, "Nondegenerate monopole-mode two-dimensional photonic band gap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032-3034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Istrate, E.

E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, "Photonic crystal heterostructures and interfaces," Rev. Modern Phys. 78, 455-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Loncar, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Mägi, E. C.

Mandelshtam, V. A.

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maune, B.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

Moss, D. J.

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, M. Natomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, and S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300,1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

Park, H-G.

H-G. Park, J-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H-Y Ryu, Y-h. Lee, J-S. Kim, "Nondegenerate monopole-mode two-dimensional photonic band gap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032-3034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Qiu, Y.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H-Y

H-G. Park, J-K. Hwang, J. Huh, H-Y Ryu, Y-h. Lee, J-S. Kim, "Nondegenerate monopole-mode two-dimensional photonic band gap laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032-3034 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

Sargent, E. H.

E. Istrate and E. H. Sargent, "Photonic crystal heterostructures and interfaces," Rev. Modern Phys. 78, 455-481 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Smith, C.

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 13, 1202-1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, and S. Noda, T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300,1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities, " Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Natomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, "Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip," Opt. Lett. 30, 2575-2577 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

B. S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. S.

V. A. Mandelshtam and H. S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities, " Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waks, E.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wtzens, J.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Wtzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y. Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, B.

G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

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E. Kuramochi, M. Natomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
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G. Wu, J. Wang, J. Shen, T. Yang, Q. Zhang, B. Zhou, Z. Deng, F. Bin, D. Zhou, and F. Zhang, "Properties of sol-gel derived scratch-resistant nano-porous silica films by a mixed atmosphere treatment," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 275, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of PCS with a W1 waveguide in the Γ-K direction and refractive index distribution in the plane of the structures considered (b) m=1 and (c) m=4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dispersion curves for W11 within the region of the lowest gap of the regular structure PC1 (empty triangles) and W12 of the structure PC2 (full circles), nholes =1.6; the dashed line represents the light line, the horizontal solid lines represent the lower band gap edge for PC1 and PC2, (b) quality factor Q (rectangles) and modal volume V (crosses) as a function of the refractive index of the central holes for m=1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Quality factor Q (rectangles) (a) and resonant frequencies (crosses) as a function of the number of periods within the cavity m, for fixed nholes =1.4, (b) as a function of the refractive index of the central holes for m=4 cavity.

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