Abstract

We report on a low-coherence interferometric scheme for the measurement of the strain and temperature dependences of group delay and dispersion in short, index-guiding, ‘endlessly-single-mode’ photonic crystal fibre elements in the 840 nm and 1550 nm regions. Based on the measurements, we propose two schemes for simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a single unmodified PCF element, without a requirement for any compensating components, and we project the measurement accuracies of these schemes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Characterisation and performance of a Terfenol-D coated femtosecond laser inscribed optical fibre Bragg sensor with a laser ablated microslot for the detection of static magnetic fields

G.N. Smith, T. Allsop, K. Kalli, C. Koutsides, R. Neal, K. Sugden, P. Culverhouse, and I. Bennion
Opt. Express 19(1) 363-370 (2011)

Combined temperature and strain measurement with a dispersive optical fiber Fourier-transform spectrometer

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and J. D. C. Jones
Opt. Lett. 19(24) 2167-2169 (1994)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1010–1012 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. D. C. Jones, “Review of fibre sensor techniques for temperature-strain discrimination,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 36–39.
  9. F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1010–1012 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanchard, P. M.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burnett, J. G.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dolinski, M.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Farahi, F.

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

Flavin, D. A.

Gander, M. J.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Greenaway, A. H.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jackson, D. A.

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jones, J. D. C.

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1010–1012 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. D. C. Jones, “Review of fibre sensor techniques for temperature-strain discrimination,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 36–39.

Kerbage, C.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach, P.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

MacPherson, W. N.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B.

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

McBride, R.

D. A. Flavin, R. McBride, and J. D. C. Jones, “Dispersion of birefringence and differential group delay in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1010–1012 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 22, 961–963 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanczyk, W.

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wójcik, J.

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

F. Farahi, D. J. Webb, J. D. C. Jones, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain: Cross-sensitivity considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 138–142 (1990).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci Technol (1)

W. J. Bock, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wójcik, “Measurements of sensitivity of the single-mode photonic crystal holey fibre to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure,” Meas. Sci Technol 15, 1496–1500 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. N. MacPherson, M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, B. Mangan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre,” Opt. Commun. 193, 97–104 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204, 179–184 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. C. Jones, “Review of fibre sensor techniques for temperature-strain discrimination,” in Twelfth International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 36–39.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Generic diagram for the experimental approach.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup, incorporating ability to interrogate the PCF element at 840 nm or 1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Left) Micrograph of the microstructured region of the PCF used in these experiments. (Right) Typical interferograms I1 and I2 due to fibre end facet reflections S1 and S2

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements of the normalised dispersion parameter D across the spectral range of the two superluminescent diodes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The measured variations of normalised group delay and dispersion with strain and temperature at a wavelength of 845 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Temperature and strain sensitivity of group delay and dispersion

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I j ( τ ) Re [ γ ˜ i ( τ ) ] = Re [ G ( ω ) exp { i ϕ j ( ω ) } exp { i ω τ } d ω ]
ϕ j ( ω ) = ϕ j ( ω r ) + ϕ j ( ω r ) ( ω ω r ) + ϕ j ( ω r ) ( ω ω r ) 2 2 +
( τ g ( ω r ) τ g ( ω r ) ) = ( β ( ω r ) β ( ω r ) ) = ( { ϕ 2 ( ω r ) ϕ 1 ( ω r ) } { ϕ 2 ( ω r ) ϕ 1 ( ω r ) } ) 2 L
D ( λ r ) = { ω r 2 2 π c } τ g ( ω r )

Metrics