Abstract

Electrostatic discharge(ESD) damage is known as a major source affecting the lifetime of oxide VCSEL. We investigated how ESD damage threshold voltage depends on the size, thickness, and composition of the oxide aperture by measuring the change of output power and reverse leakage current after ESD. ESD damage threshold voltage increased with the size of the oxide aperture, regardless of the thickness and the composition of the oxide aperture. However, damaged devices with thinner oxide layers showed relatively longer lifetime in the reliability test. The reliability data also showed that the VCSELs exposed to ESD have steeper power declines in reliability test than normal devices. This may be due to the defects formed in the active medium by ESD.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Duvvury, “ESD protection device issues for IC designs,” Proc. of the IEEE custom integrated circuits conference41–48 (2001).
  2. H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).
  6. T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).
  9. S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Amano, C.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biard, J. R.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

Chamberlin, D.

Chen, A. N.

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Clark, Andrew

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Brabander, G.

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Deng, Q.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Duvvury, C.

C. Duvvury, “ESD protection device issues for IC designs,” Proc. of the IEEE custom integrated circuits conference41–48 (2001).

Eastley, D.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Giovane, L.

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Girolami, G.

Gobbi, B.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guenter, J,K,

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guenter, J. K.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

Hawkins, B. M.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

Hawthorne, R.A

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hawthorne III, R. A.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

Heidecker, M.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herrick, B.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Herrick, R. W.

Hu, F.

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Janda, N.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, R.H

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kagawa, T.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Keever, M.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Keever, M. R.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kocot, C. P.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koelle, U.

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Krishnan, A.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krueger, J.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mayonte, M.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mayonte, M. S.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

McHugo, S.

McHugo, S. A.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neitzert, H.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

Osentowski, T.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Piccirillo, A.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rosner, S. J.

Sabharwahl, R.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takeshita, T.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tan, N.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tan, N-X.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tateno, K.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tatum, J. A.

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

Tatum, J.A

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tohmori, Y.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

Widjaja, W.

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Xie, S.

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting (1)

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski , “Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments,” Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544–545 (2002).

Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. (1)

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne III, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, “Reliability of Various Size Oxide Aperture VCSELs,” Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540–550 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron (1)

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, “Sensitivity of Proton Implanted VCSELs to Electrostatic Discharge Pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 7, 231–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, “Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 722–729 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, “Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1013–1019 (2003).
[Crossref]

SPIE Proc. (3)

J.A Tatum, Andrew Clark, J,K, Guenter, R.A Hawthorne, and R.H Johnson, “Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology,” SPIE Proc. 3946, 2–13 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 162–172 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, “Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs,” SPIE Proc. 4994, 55–66 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. Duvvury, “ESD protection device issues for IC designs,” Proc. of the IEEE custom integrated circuits conference41–48 (2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The output power change of oxide VCSELs after ESD damage with various oxide aperture diameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The reverse leakage current versus ESD voltage for the two oxide apertures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reverse leakage current of oxide VCSELs versus ESD voltages.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reliability of the control VCSELs(no ESD) and the VCSELs exposed to sub-threshold ESD(50 % ESD threshold voltage). A, B and C represent oxide structures specified in Table 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reliability of ESD damaged VCSELs with 150% damage threshold voltage. A, B, and C represent oxide structures specified in Table 1. Subscripts a and b represent the two devices of each type.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Near-field patterns of a) The VCSEL at 0.3 mA right after +50 % ESD test, b) The damaged VCSEL by the accelerated aging at 90▫, 20mA for 2 hours, and c) The VCSEL after +50 % ESD test and 45 hour reliability test. Iop=15 mA. No light comes out.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The thicknesses and the compositions of the oxide layers.

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