Abstract

Electrostatic discharge(ESD) damage is known as a major source affecting the lifetime of oxide VCSEL. We investigated how ESD damage threshold voltage depends on the size, thickness, and composition of the oxide aperture by measuring the change of output power and reverse leakage current after ESD. ESD damage threshold voltage increased with the size of the oxide aperture, regardless of the thickness and the composition of the oxide aperture. However, damaged devices with thinner oxide layers showed relatively longer lifetime in the reliability test. The reliability data also showed that the VCSELs exposed to ESD have steeper power declines in reliability test than normal devices. This may be due to the defects formed in the active medium by ESD.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Duvvury, "ESD protection device issues for IC designs," Proc. of the IEEE custom integrated circuits conference 41-48 (2001).
  2. H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. M. Hawkins, R. A. HawthorneIII, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, "Reliability of various size Oxide Aperture VCSELs," Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540-550 (2002).
  6. T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Tatum, J. Andrew Clark, K. Guenter, R. A.Hawthorne, and R. H.Johnson, "Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology," Proc. SPIE 3946, 2-13 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski, "Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments," Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544-545 (2002).
  9. S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol.,  21, 1013-1019 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol.,  21, 1013-1019 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. A. Tatum, J. Andrew Clark, K. Guenter, R. A.Hawthorne, and R. H.Johnson, "Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology," Proc. SPIE 3946, 2-13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, C.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, D.

Deng, Q.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eastley, D.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Gobbi, B.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heidecker, M.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, B.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, R. W.

Janda, N.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, T.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keever, M.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keever, M. R.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kocot, C. P.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, A.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, J.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mayonte, M.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol.,  21, 1013-1019 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mayonte, M. S.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McHugo, S.

McHugo, S. A.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Neitzert, H.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osentowski, T.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Piccirillo, A.

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

Sabharwahl, R.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takeshita, T.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tan, N.

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, N-X.

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tateno, K.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tatum, J. A.

J. A. Tatum, J. Andrew Clark, K. Guenter, R. A.Hawthorne, and R. H.Johnson, "Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology," Proc. SPIE 3946, 2-13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tohmori, Y.

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Widjaja, W.

Xie, S.

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol.,  21, 1013-1019 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron (1)

H. Neitzert, A. Piccirillo, and B. Gobbi, "Sensitivity of Proton implanted VCSELs to electrostatic discharge pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Tops Quantum Electron 7, 231-241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Takeshita, T. Kagawa, K. Tateno, O. Tadanaga, Y. Tohmori, and C. Amano, "Degradation behavior of 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with an air-post index-guide structure," J. Lightwave Technol.  13, 722-729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, R. W. Herrick, D. Chamberlin, S. J. Rosner, S. McHugo, G. Girolami, M. Mayonte, S. Kim, and W. Widjaja, "Failure mode analysis of oxide VCSELs in high humidity and high temperature," J. Lightwave Technol.,  21, 1013-1019 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

J. A. Tatum, J. Andrew Clark, K. Guenter, R. A.Hawthorne, and R. H.Johnson, "Commercialization of Honeywell’s VCSEL Technology," Proc. SPIE 3946, 2-13 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Krueger, R. Sabharwahl, S. A. McHugo, N. Tan, N. Janda, M. S. Mayonte, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. R. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Studies of ESD-related failure patterns of Agilent oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 162-172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McHugo, A. Krishnan, J. Krueger, Y. Luo, N-X. Tan, T. Osentowski, S. Xie, M. Mayonte, B. Herrick, Q. Deng, M. Heidecker, D. Eastley, M. Keever, and C. P. Kocot, "Characterization of Failure Mechanisms for Oxide VCSELs," Proc. SPIE 4994, 55-66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. HawthorneIII, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, and J. R. Biard, "Reliability of various size Oxide Aperture VCSELs," Electronic Components and Technology Conference. Proc. 52, 540-550 (2002).

S. Xie, G. De Brabander, W. Widjaja, U. Koelle, A. N. Chen, L. Giovane, F. Hu, B. Herrick, M. Keever, and T. Osentowski, "Reliability of Oxide VCSELs in Non-Hermetic Environments," Conference Proceedings of IEEE LEOS 15th Annual Meeting 2, 544-545 (2002).

C. Duvvury, "ESD protection device issues for IC designs," Proc. of the IEEE custom integrated circuits conference 41-48 (2001).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The output power change of oxide VCSELs after ESD damage with various oxide aperture diameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The reverse leakage current versus ESD voltage for the two oxide apertures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reverse leakage current of oxide VCSELs versus ESD voltages.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reliability of the control VCSELs(no ESD) and the VCSELs exposed to sub-threshold ESD(50 % ESD threshold voltage). A, B and C represent oxide structures specified in Table 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reliability of ESD damaged VCSELs with 150% damage threshold voltage. A, B, and C represent oxide structures specified in Table 1. Subscripts a and b represent the two devices of each type.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Near-field patterns of a) The VCSEL at 0.3 mA right after +50 % ESD test, b) The damaged VCSEL by the accelerated aging at 90▫, 20mA for 2 hours, and c) The VCSEL after +50 % ESD test and 45 hour reliability test. Iop=15 mA. No light comes out.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The thicknesses and the compositions of the oxide layers.

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