Abstract

We experimentally study the generation of correlated pairs of photons through four-wave mixing (FWM) in embedded silicon waveguides. The waveguides, which are designed to exhibit anomalous group-velocity dispersion at wavelengths near 1555 nm, allow phase matched FWM and thus efficient pair-wise generation of non-degenerate signal and idler photons. Photon counting measurements yield a coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) of around 25 for a signal (idler) photon production rate of about 0.05 per pulse. We characterize the variation in CAR as a function of pump power and pump-to-sideband wavelength detuning. These measurements represent a first step towards the development of tools for quantum information processing which are based on CMOS-compatible, silicon-on-insulator technology.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (7)

2005 (4)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fan, A. Migdall, and L. J. Wang, "Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 3368-3370 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1970 (1)

M. Hass, "Raman spectra of vitreous silica, germania, and sodium silicate glass," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 415-422 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. H. Parker, D. W. Feldman, M. Ashkin, "Raman scattering by silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 155, 712-714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alibart, O.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.

Almeida, V. R.

Ashkin, M.

J. H. Parker, D. W. Feldman, M. Ashkin, "Raman scattering by silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 155, 712-714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Chen, J.

Choi, S-K.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Koprulu, S-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, "14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1369-1379 (2004).

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, D. J.

Dugan, S.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Koprulu, S-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, "14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1369-1379 (2004).

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, J.

Feldman, D. W.

J. H. Parker, D. W. Feldman, M. Ashkin, "Raman scattering by silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 155, 712-714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fulconis, J.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hass, M.

M. Hass, "Raman spectra of vitreous silica, germania, and sodium silicate glass," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 31, 415-422 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, and B. Jalali, "Phase-matching and nonlinear optical processes in silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 149-160 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F. X.

Koprulu, K. G.

P. L. Voss, K. G. Koprulu, S-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, "14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1369-1379 (2004).

Kumar, P.

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, "Generation of high-purity telecom-band entangled photon pairs in dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1905-1907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, X. Li, and P. Kumar, "Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, J. Chen, P. Voss, J. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications: Improved generation of correlated photons," Opt. Express 12, 3737-3744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Voss, K. G. Koprulu, S-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, "14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1369-1379 (2004).

J. Sharping, J. Chen, X. Li, P. Kumar, and R. Windeler, "Quantum-correlated twin photons from microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 12, 3086-3094 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. F.

Li, X.

Liang, C.

Lin, Q.

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Manolatou, C.

Migdall, A.

Murdoch, S. G.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

Panepucci, R. R.

Parker, J. H.

J. H. Parker, D. W. Feldman, M. Ashkin, "Raman scattering by silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 155, 712-714 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rarity, J. G.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous-group velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J.

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous-group velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous-group velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip," Nature 441, 960-963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P.

Voss, P. L.

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, "Generation of high-purity telecom-band entangled photon pairs in dispersion-shifted fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1905-1907 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Voss, K. G. Koprulu, S-K. Choi, S. Dugan, and P. Kumar, "14 MHz rate photon counting with room temperature InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1369-1379 (2004).

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 983-985 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R.

Wong, G. K. L.

O. Alibart, J. Fulconis, G. K. L. Wong, S. G. Murdoch, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. G. Rarity, "Photon pair generation using four-wave mixing in a microstructured fibre: theory versus experiment," New J. Phys. 8, 67-86 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yaman, F.

Yin, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (5)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Description of the FWM process in (a) optical fibers, and (b) silicon waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the setup used to observe correlated photon scattering in silicon waveguides. Shown on the right are the pass bands for each set of WDM filters. A schematic of the Si waveguide buried in SiO2 is shown as an inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results from coincidence-counting measurements. (a) Plots of total coincidences (red) and accidental coincidences (blue) versus single counts per pulse obtained as the pump power is increased. The latter polot is in excellent agreement with the expected quadratic dependence (solid line). (b) Plot of the ratio of coincidences to accidental coincidences (CAR) versus single counts per pulse. Inset in (b) is a plot of the CAR as a function of the detuning of the signal and idler filters from the pump wavelength.

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