Abstract

We describe the implementation of the wavelength- and frequency-modulation spectroscopy techniques using a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser. Frequency modulation of the diode laser was transferred to the OPO’s mid-infrared idler output, avoiding the need for external modulation devices. This approach thus provides a means of implementing these important techniques with powerful, widely tunable, mid-infrared sources while retaining the simple, flexible modulation properties of diode lasers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

I. D. Lindsay, B. Adhimoolam, P. Gross, M. E. Klein and K. J. Boller, "110GHz rapid, continuous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser," Opt. Express 13, 1234-1239 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng, A. H. Kung, A. Miklos and P. Hess, "Sensitive wavelength-modulated photoacoustic spectroscopy with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1206-1208 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

2000

1993

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1983

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adhimoolam, B.

Auerbach, M.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Bartalini, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

Bomse, D. S.

Borri, S.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

de Natale, P.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

Gross, P.

Hanson, R. K.

Harren, F. J. M.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, A.

Hess, P.

Inguscio, M.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

Klein, M. E.

Kliner, D. A. V.

Koplow, J. P.

Kosterev, A. A.

Kung, A. H.

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. J.

Lindsay, I. D.

Liu, X.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, A.

Ng, J.

Ngai, A. K. Y.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, G. B.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silver, J. A.

Sivco, D. L.

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, R.

Stanton, A. C.

Tittel, F. K.

van Herpen, M.

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth and C. Ortiz, "Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis," Appl. Phys. B. B32, 145-52 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Pavone and M. Inguscio, "Frequency-modulation and wavelength-modulation spectroscopies - comparison of experimental methods using an AlGaAs Diode-Laser," Appl. Phys. B. 56, 118-122 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Borri, S. Bartalini, P. de Natale, M. Inguscio, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Frequency modulation spectroscopy by means of quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 223-229 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, P. Malara and P. De Natale, "A 3.5-mW continuous-wave difference-frequency source around 3 mu m for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 80, 141-145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. van Herpen, S. E. Bisson, A. K. Y. Ngai, F. J. M. Harren, "Combined wide pump tuning and high power of a continuous-wave, singly resonant optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 78, 281-286 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman et al. "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical configuration for WMS and FMS experiments. DBR: multi-section DBR diode laser, ISO1: 60dB isolator, ISO2: 30dB isolator, Q and H: quarter- and half-wave plates, M1-4: OPO cavity mirrors, E: intracavity etalon, tune: tuning input to DBR laser, ILD: DBR laser injection current supply, DHF: fast mid-IR detector output, DLF: slow mid-IR detector output. Electrical connections relate to instrumental configuration shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Instrumental configuration used for (a) WMS and (b) FMS detection. ILD: Injection current to DBR laser, tune: ramp signal to DBR tuning controller, DHF: fast mid-IR detector signal, DLF: slow mid-IR detector signal, driver: DBR laser injection current supply, ‘scope: digital storage oscilloscope.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

WMS spectra demodulated at the 50kHz modulation frequency (1f) and its second harmonic (2f). Also shown is the simultaneously recorded direct absorption spectrum (upper plot, top trace) and DBR seed laser transmission through a reference Fabry-Perot interferometer (upper plot, lower trace). Line assignments indicated on the direct absorption spectrum were made from the HITRAN database.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FMS spectrum acquired with fmod=153MHz. Also shown is the simultaneously recorded direct absorption spectrum (upper plot, center trace) and DBR seed laser transmission through a reference Fabry-Perot interferometer (upper plot, lower trace). The calculated cell transmission, based on HITRAN data, is shown in the upper plot against the frequency scale indicated on the top x-axis.

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