Abstract

In this letter, we investigate the image field of the quasi-monochromatic random source in the two-dimensional negative-index slab. The prominent temporal-coherence gain of the image is observed in the numerical simulations even when the frequency-filtering effects are very weak. We find that the signals originating from the source will take the different time—“group” retarded time to reach the image location along the different optical paths. Based on the new physical picture, a simple phenomenological theory is constructed to obtain the image field and demonstrate that the temporal-coherence gain is from different “group” retarded time. The phenomenological theory agrees well with the FDTD simulation and the strict Green’s function method. These results should have important impacts on the study of coherence mechanism and the design of novel devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago,"The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Pendry,"Comment on :Left-handed materials do not make a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 099701 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Gomez-Santos,"Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,"Science 292, 77 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction at media with negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003);
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "Comment on :Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys.Rev. Lett. 90, 029703 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. S. Rao and C. K. Ong, "Amplification of evanescent waves in a lossy left-handed material slab," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113103 (2003);
    [CrossRef]
  14. MichaelW. Feise, Yuri S. Kivshar, "Sub-wavelength imaging with a left-handed material flat lens," Phys. Lett. A 334326 (2005)
  15. Lei Zhou, C. T. Chan, "Vortex-like surface wave and its role in the transient phenomena of meta-material focusing, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Chen, S. He and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. A. Cummer, "Simulated causal subwavelength focusing by a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1503 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).
  20. R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Nader Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett. 1, 10,2002.
  23. IlyaV. Shadrivov, Andrey A. Sukhorukov, and Yuri S. Kivshar, "Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides, " Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
  24. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991).
  25. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1995).
  26. MarlanO.  Scully and M. Suhail Zubairy, Quantum Optics, (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1997).
  27. X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70(2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. In our source frequency range, the index range is about.1.i0.0029±(0.006+i10.5), so the difference of the focal length and the reflection are very small.
  29. The "group velocity" is not a well-defined value if the working frequency ω0 is near the resonant frequency ωa of the NIM. But the GRT is still well-defined.
  30. Xunya Jiang, Wenda Han, and Peijun Yao, unpublished.

2005 (4)

A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

MichaelW. Feise, Yuri S. Kivshar, "Sub-wavelength imaging with a left-handed material flat lens," Phys. Lett. A 334326 (2005)

Lei Zhou, C. T. Chan, "Vortex-like surface wave and its role in the transient phenomena of meta-material focusing, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

L. Chen, S. He and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (12)

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IlyaV. Shadrivov, Andrey A. Sukhorukov, and Yuri S. Kivshar, "Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides, " Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).

S. A. Cummer, "Simulated causal subwavelength focusing by a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction at media with negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003);
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "Comment on :Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys.Rev. Lett. 90, 029703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Rao and C. K. Ong, "Amplification of evanescent waves in a lossy left-handed material slab," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113103 (2003);
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry,"Comment on :Left-handed materials do not make a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 099701 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomez-Santos,"Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Nader Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett. 1, 10,2002.

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,"Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70(2000).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago,"The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

L. Chen, S. He and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

S. A. Cummer, "Simulated causal subwavelength focusing by a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, B.

A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction at media with negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forester, D. W.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction at media with negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003);
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Santos, G.

G. Gomez-Santos,"Photonic band gap from a stack of positive and negative index materials, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Chen, S. He and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, E.

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilya,

IlyaV. Shadrivov, Andrey A. Sukhorukov, and Yuri S. Kivshar, "Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides, " Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70(2000).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lei Zhou,

Lei Zhou, C. T. Chan, "Vortex-like surface wave and its role in the transient phenomena of meta-material focusing, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loidl, A.

A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Loschialpo, P. F.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michael,

MichaelW. Feise, Yuri S. Kivshar, "Sub-wavelength imaging with a left-handed material flat lens," Phys. Lett. A 334326 (2005)

Ong, C. K.

X. S. Rao and C. K. Ong, "Amplification of evanescent waves in a lossy left-handed material slab," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113103 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys.Rev. B 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "Comment on :Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys.Rev. Lett. 90, 029703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry,"Comment on :Left-handed materials do not make a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 099701 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, A.

A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Przyslupski, P.

A. Pimenov, P. Przyslupski, A. Loidl, and B. Dabrowski, "Negative refraction in ferromagnet -superconductor superlattices,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247009 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Rachford, F. J.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

Ramakrishna, S. A.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, X. S.

X. S. Rao and C. K. Ong, "Amplification of evanescent waves in a lossy left-handed material slab," Phys. Rev. B 68, 113103 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, M.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schelleng, J.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,"Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,"Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, L.

L. Chen, S. He and L. Shen, "Finite-size effects of a left-handed material slab on the image quality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107404 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. L. Smith, D. W. Forester, F. J. Rachford, and J. Schelleng, "Electromagnetic waves focused by a negative-index planar lens," Phys. Rev. E 67, 025602(R) (2003).

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and D. R. Smith, "Comment on :Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys.Rev. Lett. 90, 029703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,"Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction at media with negative refractive index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003);
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, " Subwavelength resolution in a twodimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003);
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, "Time dependent theory for random lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 70(2000).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago,"The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Heyman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability," Phys. Rev. E 64, 056625 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, M. Rosenbluth, S. Schultz, S. A. Ramakrishna, and J. B. Pendry, "Limitations on subdiffraction imaging with a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1506 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lei Zhou, C. T. Chan, "Vortex-like surface wave and its role in the transient phenomena of meta-material focusing, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, "Simulated causal subwavelength focusing by a negative refractive index slab,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Merlin, "Analytical solution of the almost-perfect-lens problem," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett. (1)

Nader Engheta, "An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett. 1, 10,2002.

Nature (London) (1)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis,"Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

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Other (6)

In our source frequency range, the index range is about.1.i0.0029±(0.006+i10.5), so the difference of the focal length and the reflection are very small.

The "group velocity" is not a well-defined value if the working frequency ω0 is near the resonant frequency ωa of the NIM. But the GRT is still well-defined.

Xunya Jiang, Wenda Han, and Peijun Yao, unpublished.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991).

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1995).

MarlanO.  Scully and M. Suhail Zubairy, Quantum Optics, (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1997).

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