Abstract

The adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope has been fitted with three light sources of different wavelengths to allow simultaneous or separate imaging with one, two or three wavelength combinations. The source wavelengths used are 532 nm, 658 nm and 840 nm. Typically the instrument is used in dual-frame mode, performing imaging at 840 nm and precisely coincident retinal stimulation in one of the visible wavelengths. Instrument set-up and single-detector image capture are described. Simultaneous multi-wavelength imaging in the living human retina is demonstrated. The chromatic aberrations of the human eye lead to lateral and axial shifts, as well as magnification differences in the image, from one wavelength to another. Measurement of these chromatic effects is described for instrument characterization purposes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10,405-412 (2002).
  2. J. A. Martin. and A. Roorda, "Direct and non-invasive assessment of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocyte Velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).
  4. F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman, and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37,165-170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, "In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells," Opt. Express 14, 7144-7158 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. A. Howarth, and A. Bradley, "The Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction," Vision Res. 26, 361-366 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Simonet, and M. C. W. Campbell, "The optical transverse chromatic aberration on the Fovea of the human eye," Vision Res. 30,187-206 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).
  11. E. Fernandez, A. Unterhuber, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, "Chromatic aberration correction of the human eye for retinal imaging in the near infrared," Opt. Express 14, 6213-6225 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).
  13. X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993).
  14. Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1993. New York: American National Standards Institute (1993) and ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).
  15. Y. Zhang and A. Roorda, "Evaluating the lateral resolution of the adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014002 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, "Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy" in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol. 5688A, 145-151 (2005).
  19. C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation in Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14,487-497 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. -Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi and D. R. Williams, "Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye's aberrations," Opt. Express 8, 631-643 (2001).
  21. A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. I. YellotJr, "Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing," Vision Res. 22, 1205-1210 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (5)

2005 (2)

J. A. Martin. and A. Roorda, "Direct and non-invasive assessment of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocyte Velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (3)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman, and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37,165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993).

1991 (1)

X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).

1990 (2)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Simonet, and M. C. W. Campbell, "The optical transverse chromatic aberration on the Fovea of the human eye," Vision Res. 30,187-206 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. A. Howarth, and A. Bradley, "The Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction," Vision Res. 26, 361-366 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. I. YellotJr, "Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing," Vision Res. 22, 1205-1210 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ahamd, K.

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

Ashman, R. A.

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman, and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37,165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).

Bradley, A.

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993).

X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Howarth, and A. Bradley, "The Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction," Vision Res. 26, 361-366 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

Campbell, M. C. W.

P. Simonet, and M. C. W. Campbell, "The optical transverse chromatic aberration on the Fovea of the human eye," Vision Res. 30,187-206 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Collins, M. J.

C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).

Donnelly, W.

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

Eikelboom, R. H.

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman, and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37,165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E.

Gee, B. P.

Gray, D. C.

Hebert, T.

Henry, L.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

Hermann, B.

Hofer, H.

Howarth, P. A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Howarth, and A. Bradley, "The Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction," Vision Res. 26, 361-366 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin. and A. Roorda, "Direct and non-invasive assessment of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocyte Velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W.

Moreno-Barriusop, E.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A.

Patel, S.

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

Poonja, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

Queener, H.

Reinholz, F.

Romero-Borja, F.

K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10,405-412 (2002).

Roorda, A.

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang and A. Roorda, "Evaluating the lateral resolution of the adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and A. Parker, "Retinal motion estimation in Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14,487-497 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Martin. and A. Roorda, "Direct and non-invasive assessment of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocyte Velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly, III, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10,405-412 (2002).

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simonet, P.

P. Simonet, and M. C. W. Campbell, "The optical transverse chromatic aberration on the Fovea of the human eye," Vision Res. 30,187-206 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Still, D. L.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993).

X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

Venkateswaran, K.

K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, C. R.

Wildsoet, C.

C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).

Williams, D. R.

Wolfing, J. I.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yellot, J. I.

J. I. YellotJr, "Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing," Vision Res. 22, 1205-1210 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, G. -Y.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. Bradley, and L. N. Thibos, "Experimental determination of the chromatic difference of magnification of the human eye and the location of the anterior nodal point," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 213-220 (1993).

X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang and A. Roorda, "Evaluating the lateral resolution of the adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Poonja, and A. Roorda, "MEMS-based adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1268-1270 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Exper. Optom. (1)

C. Wildsoet, D. A. Atchison, and M. J. Collins, "Longitudinal chromatic aberration as a function of refractive error," Clin. Exper. Optom. 76,119-122 (1993).

Cytometry (1)

F. Reinholz, R. A. Ashman, and R. H. Eikelboom, "Simultaneous three wavelength imaging with a scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Cytometry 37,165-170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Zhang and A. Roorda, "Evaluating the lateral resolution of the adaptive optics scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014002 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Venkateswaran, F. Romero-Borja, and A. Roorda, "Theoretical modeling and evaluation of the axial resolution of the Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 132-138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Journal of Refractive Surgery (1)

S. Poonja, S. Patel, L. Henry, and A. Roorda, "Dynamic visual stimulus presentation in an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Journal of Refractive Surgery 21,575-580 (2005).

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, "The arrangement of the three cone classes in the living human eye," Nature 397, 520-522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (1)

J. A. Martin. and A. Roorda, "Direct and non-invasive assessment of Parafoveal Capillary Leukocyte Velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom Vision Sci. (1)

X. Zhang, L. N. Thibos, and A. Bradley, "Relation between the chromatic difference of refraction and the chromatic difference of magnification for the reduced eye," Optom Vision Sci. 68, 456-458 (1991).

Vision Res. (5)

S. Marcos, S. A. Burns, E. Moreno-Barriusop, and R. Navarro, "A new approach to the study of ocular chromatic aberrations," Vision Res. 39,4309-4323 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Howarth, and A. Bradley, "The Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human eye, and its correction," Vision Res. 26, 361-366 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, "Theory and measurement of Ocular Chromatic Aberration," Vision Res. 30,33-49 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Simonet, and M. C. W. Campbell, "The optical transverse chromatic aberration on the Fovea of the human eye," Vision Res. 30,187-206 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. I. YellotJr, "Spectral analysis of spatial sampling by photoreceptors: Topological disorder prevents aliasing," Vision Res. 22, 1205-1210 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. B. Stevenson and A. Roorda, "Correcting for miniature eye movements in high resolution scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy" in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. Soderberg, and A. Ho, eds., Proc. SPIE Vol. 5688A, 145-151 (2005).

Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1-1993. New York: American National Standards Institute (1993) and ANSI, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

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