Abstract

We describe the fabrication and characterization of micron-scale buried strip waveguides with erbium-doped (~ 1 at. %) silicon monoxide (SiO) cores and SiO2 and polymer claddings. In spite of large core-cladding index offset (Δn~0.4), propagation loss is as low as ~ 1 dB/cm. The crosssection for the 4I13/2 to 4I15/2 erbium transition was estimated as ~10-20 cm2, a factor of 2 to 3 higher than in silica glass. The annealed core material contains a high density of amorphous silicon nanoclusters, which act as efficient broadband sensitizers for erbium. Both a traditional copropagating pump (980 nm wavelength) configuration and a transverse pump (532 nm wavelength, < 10 W/cm2) configuration were tested. In either case, free carrier absorption loss is the dominant pump-induced mechanism and approximately 15–20 % of the erbium population is invertible.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Polman, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 871-892 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
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  14. K. Schulmeister, and W. Mader, "TEM investigation on the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 143-150 (2003).
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  17. S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystals waveguides in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Daldosso et al., "Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross-sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  30. Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Desurvire, "Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: basic physics and characteristics," in Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed., (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2001).
  34. A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (8)

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54 μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso et al., "Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross-sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Kao,  et al., "Correlation between Si-related and erbium photoluminescence bands and determination of erbium effective excitation cross-section in SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 871-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Schulmeister, and W. Mader, "TEM investigation on the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystals waveguides in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Friede, and M. Jansen, "Some comments on so-called ‘silicon monoxide’," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 206, 202-203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

Aarts, I. M. P.

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ago, Y.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angel, J. A.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arbiol, J.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhamber, S. S.

A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blois, C.

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bongiorno, C.

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boulard, B.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carrada, M.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. S.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chryssou, C. E.

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T.

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cognolato, L.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couchaud, M.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso et al., "Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross-sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, M. J.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeCorby, R.

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deneke, C.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denninger, G.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duverger, C.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54 μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elwenspoek, M.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forcales, M.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54 μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friede, B.

B. Friede, and M. Jansen, "Some comments on so-called ‘silicon monoxide’," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 206, 202-203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fuess, H.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, C.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García, C.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gardeniers, J. G. E.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilde, M.-J.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Leal, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, O. B.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haas, G.

Han, H.-S.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hohl, A.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hole, D. E.

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hryciw, A.

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

Humphreys, C. J.

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imakita, K.

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, H V.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, M.

B. Friede, and M. Jansen, "Some comments on so-called ‘silicon monoxide’," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 206, 202-203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jantsch, W.

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jhe, J.-H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kamenev, B. V.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

C.-C. Kao,  et al., "Correlation between Si-related and erbium photoluminescence bands and determination of erbium effective excitation cross-section in SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karthe, W.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kashkarov, P. K.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, W. M. M.

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystals waveguides in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klik, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kozanecki, A.

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuritsyn, D.

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lebour, Y.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levalois, M.

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lisachenko, M. G.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mader, W.

K. Schulmeister, and W. Mader, "TEM investigation on the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, E.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maurice, E.

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meldrum, A.

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, H.

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morante, J. R.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oswald, S.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P.

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pitt, C. W.

A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 871-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystals waveguides in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prieto-Alcon, R.

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Przybylinska, H.

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richter, B.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, R.

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S. W.

S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roelofs, G.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salzberg, C.

Sasserath, J. N.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulmeister, K.

K. Schulmeister, and W. Mader, "TEM investigation on the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalygina, O. A.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, N.

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu-Iwayama, T.

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54 μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smulders, E.

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teterukov, S. A.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Timoshenko, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Aken, P. A.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van de Sanden, M. C. M.

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

A. Polman, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 871-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vasilief, I.

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vicens, J.

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, M.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vinciguerra, V.

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

Wang, X. F.

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

Watanabe, K.

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weirich, T. E.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, T.

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhigunov, D. M.

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

G. Franzo, S. Boninelli, D. Pacifici, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and C. Bongiorno, "Sensitizing properties of amorphous Si clusters on the 1.54-μm luminescence of Er in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3871-3873 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Han, S.-Y. Seo, J. H. Shin, N. Park, "Coefficient determination related to optical gain in erbium-doped silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguide amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3720-3722 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, M. Carrada, R. Rizk, C. García, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, and L. Cognolato, "Absorption cross section and signal enhancement in Er-doped Si nanocluster rib-loaded waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 261103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Daldosso et al., "Refractive index dependence of the absorption and emission cross-sections at 1.54 μm of Er3+ coupled to Si nanoclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Mertens, A. Polman, I. M. P. Aarts, W. M. M. Kessels and M. C. M. van de Sanden, "Absence of the enhanced intra-4f transition cross section at 1.5 μm of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Kuritsyn, A. Kozanecki, H. Przybylinska, and W. Jantsch, "Defect-mediated and resonant optical excitation of Er3+ ions in silicon-rich silicon oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4160-4162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, J. Arbiol, C. Garcia, Y. Lebour, and J. R. Morante, "Site of Er ions in silica layers codoped with Si nanoclusters and Er," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121915 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Oton, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, "Er3+ excited state absorption and the low fraction of nanocluster-excitable Er3+ in SiOx," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 031116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eng. B (1)

A. J. Kenyon, S. S. Bhamber, and C. W. Pitt, "The infra-red photoresponse of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals," Mat. Science.Eng. B 105, 230-235 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

J. H. Shin, J. Lee, H.-S. Han, J.-H. Jhe, J. S. Chang, S.-Y. Seo, H. Lee, and N. Park, "Si nanocluster sensitization of Er-doped silica for optical amplet using top-pumping visible LEDs," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 783-796 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (10)

A. J. Kenyon, C. E. Chryssou, C. W. Pitt, T. Shimizu-Iwayama, D. E. Hole, N. Sharma and C. J. Humphreys, "Luminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals in silicon: excitation mechanisms," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 367-374 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, K. Imakita, K. Watanabe, and S. Hayashi, "Coexistance of two different energy transfer processes in SiO2 films containing Si nanocrystals and Er," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 272-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Priolo, G. Franzò, D. Pacifici, V. Vinciguerra, F. Iacona, and A. Irrera, "Role of the energy transfer in the optical properties of undoped and Er-doped interacting Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 264-272 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Exciton-erbium interactions in Si nanocrystal-doped SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992-1998 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Gourbilleau, M. Levalois, C. Dufour, J. Vicens, and R. Rizk, "Optimized conditions for an enhanced coupling rate between Er ions and Si nanoclusters for an improved 1.54-μm emission," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3717-3722 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Timoshenko, M. G. Lisachenko, O. A. Shalygina, B. V. Kamenev, D. M. Zhigunov, S. A. Teterukov, and P. K. Kashkarov, "Comparative study of photoluminescence of undoped and erbium-doped size-controlled nanocrystalline Si/SiO2 multilayered structures," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2254-2260 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Kao,  et al., "Correlation between Si-related and erbium photoluminescence bands and determination of erbium effective excitation cross-section in SiO2 films," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013544 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, "Clustering in erbium-doped silica glass fibers analyzed using 980 nm excited-state absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4472-4478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Forcales, N. J. Smith, and R. G. Elliman, "Pump-probe experiments at 1.54 μm on silicon-rich silicon oxide waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 014902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, "Gain limiting processes in Er-doped Si nanocrystals waveguides in SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 534-536 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromechanical Sys. (1)

M. J. de Boer, J. G. E. Gardeniers, H V. Jansen, E. Smulders, M.-J. Gilde, G. Roelofs, J. N. Sasserath, and M. Elwenspoek, "Guidelines for Etching Silicon MEMS Structures Using Fluorine High-Density Plasmas at Cryogenic Temperatures," J. Microelectromechanical Sys. 11, 385-401 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Crystalline Sol. (4)

J. M. Gonzalez-Leal, R. Prieto-Alcon, J. A. Angel, and E. Marquez, "Optical properties of thermally evaporated amorphous As40S60-xSex films," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 315, 124-143 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohl, T. Wieder, P. A. van Aken, T. E. Weirich, G. Denninger, M. Vidal, S. Oswald, C. Deneke, J. Mayer and H. Fuess, "An interface clusters mixture model for the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide (SiO)," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 255-280 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Schulmeister, and W. Mader, "TEM investigation on the structure of amorphous silicon monoxide," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 320, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Friede, and M. Jansen, "Some comments on so-called ‘silicon monoxide’," J. Non-Crystalline Sol. 206, 202-203 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

A. Polman, and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, "Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 21, 871-892 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

E. Maurice, G. Monnom, B. Dussardier, and D. B. Ostrowsky, "Clustering-induced nonsaturable absorption phenomenon in heavily erbium-doped silica fibers," Opt. Lett. 76, 2487-2489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (3)

Y. Ago, B. Boulard, M. Couchaud, I. Vasilief, S. Guy, C. Duverger and B. Jacquier, "Preparation by PVD of Er/Ce-doped PZG fluoride glass channel waveguide for integrated optical amplifiers at 1.5 μm," Opt. Mater. 28, 195-199 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Roberts, G. J. Parker, and M. Hempstead, "The Photoluminescence of Erbium-doped Silicon Monoxide," Opt. Mater. 6, 99-102 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Hryciw, C. Blois, A. Meldrum, T. Clement, R. DeCorby, and Q. Li, "Photoluminescence from Er-doped silicon oxide microcavities," Opt. Mater. 28, 873-878 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag (1)

J. Wang, X. F. Wang, Q. Li, A. Hryciw, A. Meldrum, "The microstructure of SiO thin films: from nanoclusters to nanocrystals," Phil. Mag, in press (2006).

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, "Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters," Phys. Rev. B. 69, 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-700 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Desurvire, "Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: basic physics and characteristics," in Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed., (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 2001).

D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. D. Degro, "Modeling and perspectives of the Si nanocrystals-Er interaction for optical amplification," Phys. Rev. B  67, 245301-1-13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Transmittance versus wavelength for an SiO film on glass annealed at 500 C. Inset: Absorption coefficient versus wavelength near the band edge. Periodic oscillation above 500 nm is due to Fabry-Perot interference effects. (b). Refractive index versus wavelength for the same SiO film. The solid curve is a Wemple-DiDomenico fit as described in the text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)-(d) SEM micrographs showing the sequence of steps in the fabrication of buried strip waveguides (a) End facet view of a tall rib etched in silicon. (b) End facet view of a rib after thermal oxidation. The protrusions near the upper edges of the SiO2 evolve as a result of leaving the SiO2 mask from the silicon etch step. (c) SEM image of the structure in (b), but from a different angle. (d) End facet view of the final waveguide structure, after Er:SiO core and BCB upper cladding deposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Near field profile (as simulated using OptiBPM) of the fundamental TE guided mode for a buried strip waveguide. The geometry of the simulated waveguide is overlaid. (b). The experimental near field mode profile obtained from a buried strip waveguide with nominally the same dimensions as in part (a). A wavelength of 1300 nm was used in both cases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Transmission scans for strip loaded and buried strip waveguides, corrected for system response and referenced to 1620 nm. (b). The estimated absorption cross-section spectrum for a buried strip guide (6 µm core width), extracted from the data in (a). Also shown is the estimated emission cross-section spectrum, based on experimental photoluminescence data and scaled using the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg expression.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Schematic of the transverse pumping experiment. PD1 and PD2 are photodetectors, PC is a polarization controller, and WG is the waveguide under test. (b). Photograph of a waveguide under transverse pumping with green light.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Transmission scans for a buried strip waveguide under transverse pumping by 532 nm light of varying intensity. (b). The erbium related signal enhancement extracted from the data in (a), as described in the text.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Relative transmission (relative to the unpumped case) inside and outside the Er emission band, for transverse and co-propagating pump. (b). Erbium inversion versus pump intensity, extracted from the raw data as described in the text.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Propagation loss at a wavelength of 1300 nm, estimated by subtracting theoretical coupling loss from experimental insertion losses. Results shown are representative of the lowest loss buried strip waveguides measured, with core width 6 µm, and for TE polarized input light. Coupling loss of 4.4 dB was assumed in all cases.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Peak 4 I 15/2 to 4 I 13/2 absorption cross-sections estimated for the two different types of waveguides studied. For the buried strip guides, different core widths (4-6 µm) produced slightly different estimates within the range indicated. This might be due in part to the presence of higher order modes in wider guides.

Equations (4)

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σ 21 ( λ ) = λ P 4 8 π c n 2 τ rad Δ λ eff I PL ( λ ) ,
SE erb ( I P , λ ) = T ( I P , λ ) · T ( 0 , 1620 ) T ( 0 , λ ) · T ( I P , 1620 ) ,
N 2 N erb = SE erb peak 2 α erb peak ,
N 2 N erb = ( 1 k ) σ eff ϕ P τ 21 1 + σ eff ϕ P τ 21

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