Abstract

We have made and characterized a new, erbium-doped tellurite glass that has high glass transition temperature. Addition of phosphate is found to increase the phonon energy. The peak emission cross section is 6 × 10-21 cm2 at 1537 nm and the fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2-4I15/2 transition is 4.1 ms. We have written 2-D channel waveguides in this glass using focused, 45-fs pulses from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser at different laser energies and writing speeds. Migration of atoms towards the periphery of the waveguides occurs, leading to refractive index changes. Channels show waveguiding at 1310 nm which is promising for the fabrication of integrated lasers and broadband amplifiers.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  3. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackburn, "Optical properties of Nd in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses," J Appl. Phys. 52, 2944-2949 (1981).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct write fabrication of symmetric waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5676-5681 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped phosphor-tellurite glasses," Physica B 381, 66-72 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Erbium doped phospho-tellurite glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun 265, 588-593 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped phosphor-tellurite glasses," Physica B 381, 66-72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackburn, "Optical properties of Nd in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses," J Appl. Phys. 52, 2944-2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Blackburn, D. H.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackburn, "Optical properties of Nd in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses," J Appl. Phys. 52, 2944-2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

Hirao, K.

Huang, L.

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Jose, G.

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped phosphor-tellurite glasses," Physica B 381, 66-72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Erbium doped phospho-tellurite glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun 265, 588-593 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Killi, A.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, U.

Marshall, G. D.

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

Myers, J. D.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackburn, "Optical properties of Nd in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses," J Appl. Phys. 52, 2944-2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nandi, P.

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ doped phosphor-tellurite glasses," Physica B 381, 66-72 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Erbium doped phospho-tellurite glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun 265, 588-593 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

Silvestri, S. D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, U. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 μm by astigmatic beam focusing," Opt. Lett. 27, 1938-1940 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Suimoto, N.

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 227-285 (2006).

S. Taccheo, G. D. Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. M., M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Er:Yb -doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valle, G. D.

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, J. D. Myers, and D. H. Blackburn, "Optical properties of Nd in tellurite and phosphotellurite glasses," J Appl. Phys. 52, 2944-2949 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: A new avenue to three dimentional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. D. Silvestri, "Optical gain in Er-Yb doped waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulse," Electron. Lett. 38, 964-965 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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P. Nandi and G. Jose, "Erbium doped phospho-tellurite glasses for 1.5 μm optical amplifiers," Opt. Commun 265, 588-593 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption spectrum of the erbium-doped glass.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Emission cross-section spectrum of the erbium-doped glass; (b) fluorescence decay data for the 4I13/2-4I15/2 transition. The fit (solid line) to the data yields a lifetime of 4.1 ms.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the incident laser pulse (black) and the spectrum of the light that is transmitted through our glass sample (red).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Laser-written channels observed through an optical microscope at writing speeds of 0.01 cm/s (top channel), 0.02 cm/s (middle channel), and 0.03 cm/s (bottom channel). Channels as long as 1 cm were written. (b) Cross-sectional side images of the waveguides shown in (a). (c) Mode-profile image of channel-transmitted 1310 nm laser light. (d) Intensity profile of the channel output depicted in (c). Horizontal lines in (a), (b), and (c) denote the indicated scale lengths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Physical properties, Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters, radiative lifetime and fluorescence properties of the tellurite glass.

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