Abstract

We demonstrate wavelength locking of a diode laser at 760 nm with feedback from an elastic transmission grating in the Littrow configuration. The laser was in a single longitudinal mode with a side-mode suppression of 20 dB. By stretching the grating the laser could be tuned over a few nm. The grating was fabricated in a silicone elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane) by a moulding technique, and coated by a thin layer of Ti and Au to achieve an increased diffraction efficiency needed for efficient locking.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Laurila, T. Joutsenoja, R. Hernberg, and M. Kuittinen, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser at 650 nm based on a transmission diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 41,5632-5637 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Elderstig, G. Arvidsson, L. Forssén, P. Henriksson, F. Laurell, G. Palmskog, and G  Tikkanen, "Silicone as an optical material," 4th International Conference on Micro System Technologies, Berlin, Oct 19-21, 1994, Micro System Technologies '94 (Eds. H Reichl, A Heuberger), pp 1055-1062.
  8. J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. A. Grzybowski, D. Qin, and G. M. Whitesides, "Beam redirection and frequency filtering with transparent elastomeric diffractive elements," Appl. Opt. 38, 2997-3002, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  11. A.N. Simonov, O. Akhzar-Mehr, and G. Vdovin, "Light scanner based on a viscoelastic stretchable grating," Opt. Lett.,  30,949-951 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. Laurila, T. Joutsenoja, R. Hernberg, and M. Kuittinen, "Tunable external-cavity diode laser at 650 nm based on a transmission diffraction grating," Appl. Opt. 41,5632-5637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Akhzar-Mehr, O.

Andalkar, A.

A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A. S.

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baillargeon, J. N.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boshier, M. G.

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grzybowski, B. A.

Hanada, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hemmerich, A.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hernberg, R.

Hosokawa, K.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W.-Y.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishaug, B.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackman, R. J.

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Joutsenoja, T.

König, W.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuittinen, M.

Lamoreaux, S. K.

A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, T.

Le, H. Q.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meada, R.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qin, D.

Ricci, L.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, O. J. A.

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simonov, A.N.

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Um, J.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

Vuletic, V.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, R. B.

A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weidemüller, M.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

B. A. Grzybowski, D. Qin, and G. M. Whitesides, "Beam redirection and frequency filtering with transparent elastomeric diffractive elements," Appl. Opt. 38, 2997-3002, (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rogers, R. J. Jackman, O. J. A. Schuller, and G. M. Whitesides, "Elastomeric diffraction gratings as photothermal detectors," Appl. Opt. 34, 6641-6647, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. S.

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, "A narrowband tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb," Am. J. Phys. 60,1098-1111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, "Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78,2834-2836 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng.

K. Hosokawa, K. Hanada, and R. Meada, "A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) deformable diffraction grating for monitoring of local pressure in microfluidic devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 1-6, (2002)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. Ricci, M. Weidemüller, T. Esslinger, A. Hemmerich, C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, "A compact grating-stabilized diode laser system for atomic physics," Opt. Commun. 117,541-549 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. S. Arnold, J. S. Wilson, and M. G. Boshier, "A simple extended-cavity diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69,1236-1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Andalkar, S. K. Lamoreaux, and R. B. Warrington, "Improved external cavity design for cesium D1 (894 nm) diode laser," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71,4029-4031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Elderstig, G. Arvidsson, L. Forssén, P. Henriksson, F. Laurell, G. Palmskog, and G  Tikkanen, "Silicone as an optical material," 4th International Conference on Micro System Technologies, Berlin, Oct 19-21, 1994, Micro System Technologies '94 (Eds. H Reichl, A Heuberger), pp 1055-1062.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM profile measurements of the Ti-Au coated silicone grating. The dashed line in the lower part indicates where the vertical section in the upper part was taken. In the upper part the filled black triangle shows the size of the scanning tip to scale.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of the Littrow-like system for stretch tuning.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Side-mode suppression with the diode laser locked.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Wavelength versus grating strain. Measured points plotted over theoretical curve

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