Abstract

The incremental deposition of a thin overlay on the cladding of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induces important resonance wavelength shifts in the transmission spectrum. The phenomenon is proved theoretically with a vectorial method based on hybrid modes and coupled mode theory, and experimentally with electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process. The phenomenon is repeated periodically for specific overlay thickness values with the particularity that the shape of the resonance wavelength shift depends on the thickness of the overlay. The main applications are the design of wide optical filters and multiparameter sensing devices.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

1999

1998

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1132-1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Achaerandio, M.

Albin, S.

Anemogiannis, E.

Arregui, F. J.

Ashwell, G. J.

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, 457-466 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. E.

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1132-1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. F. Rubner, "Influence of the degree of Ionization on Weak Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Assembly," Macromolecules,  38, 116-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Contesta, L.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper and A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 21, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, "Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward Layered Polymeric Multicomposites," Science,  277, 1232-1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

Eggleton, B. J.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long- period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A,  14, 1760-1773 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Guerra, G.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

Heflin, J. R.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam and G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark and A. M. Vengsarkar, "All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 883-885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper and A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 21, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lee, J.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. R.

Matias, I. R.

Pilla, P.

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Express 14, 19-34 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, J. R.

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1132-1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

Rees, N. D.

Reichard, K. A.

Rogowski, S.

Rubner, M. F.

J. Choi, M. F. Rubner, "Influence of the degree of Ionization on Weak Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Assembly," Macromolecules,  38, 116-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Stark, J. B.

Stolen, R. H.

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Rees, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam and G. J. Ashwell, "Optical fiber long-period gratings with Langmuir-Blodgett thin-film overlays," Opt. Lett. 27, 686-688 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

B. J. Eggleton, R. E. Slusher, J. B. Judkins, J. B. Stark and A. M. Vengsarkar, "All-optical switching in long period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 22, 883-885 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as Band Rejection Filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper and A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 21, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z. Y.

Yin, S. S.

Zhang, Q. M.

Zhang, Y.

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper and A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 21, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. R. Qiang and H. E. Chen, "Gain flattening fibre filters using phase shifted long period fibre grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1132-1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, Y. Zhang, K. L. Cooper and A. Wang, "Fibre-optic interferometric immuno-sensor using long period grating," Electron. Lett. 21, 324-325 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Pilla, A. Iadicicco, L. Contesta, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra and A. Cusano, "Optical chemo-sensor based on long-period gratings coated with δ form syndiotactic polystyrene," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1713-1715, (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Macromolecules

J. Choi, M. F. Rubner, "Influence of the degree of Ionization on Weak Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Assembly," Macromolecules,  38, 116-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci Technol.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: characteristics and application," Meas. Sci Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

G. Decher, "Fuzzy Nanoassemblies: Toward Layered Polymeric Multicomposites," Science,  277, 1232-1237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (2279 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

LPFG coated with one overlay.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectrum as a function of the overlay thickness (simulation). Overlay index 1.52. Surrounding medium: water.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum (simulation) for two overlay thickness values: a) 3780 nm; b) 4120 nm. Overlay index 1.52. Surrounding medium: water.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectrum as a function of the overlay thickness (simulation). Overlay index 1.52+0.0025i. Surrounding medium: water.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum as a function of the overlay thickness (simulation). Overlay index 1.52+0.0025i. Surrounding medium: air.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum as a function of the overlay thickness (experiment). Overlay index 1.52+0.0025i. Surrounding medium: water.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmission spectra for the first and the second transition of modes. The movie of the transitions can be seen in an avi file. [Media 1]

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrum as a function of the overlay thickness (experiment). Overlay index 1.52+0.0025i. Surrounding medium: air.

Equations (1)

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β 01 ( λ ) + s 0 ζ 01 , 01 ( λ ) ( β 0 j ( λ ) + s 0 ζ 0 j , 0 j ( λ ) ) = 2 π Λ

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