We report on the first demonstration of flat substrate imaging gratings fabricated by deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoreduction lithography, which uniquely offers sub-100-nm resolution and spatial coherence over centimeter scales. Reflective focusing gratings, designed according to holographic principle, were fabricated on 300-mm silicon wafers by immersion DUV lithography. Spatial coherence of the fabrication process is evident in measured diffraction-limited imaging function. Flat-substrate gratings, with lines of arbitrary spacing and curvature, offer both dispersion and general spatial wavefront transformation combining the function of multiple optical elements. Fabrication at the sub-100-nm resolution level allows high-line-count, low-order efficient gratings even into the deep ultraviolet region. Nanoreplication of gratings at the wafer level provides a pathway to devices of ultimate low cost.
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