Abstract

We report on the first demonstration of flat substrate imaging gratings fabricated by deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoreduction lithography, which uniquely offers sub-100-nm resolution and spatial coherence over centimeter scales. Reflective focusing gratings, designed according to holographic principle, were fabricated on 300-mm silicon wafers by immersion DUV lithography. Spatial coherence of the fabrication process is evident in measured diffraction-limited imaging function. Flat-substrate gratings, with lines of arbitrary spacing and curvature, offer both dispersion and general spatial wavefront transformation combining the function of multiple optical elements. Fabrication at the sub-100-nm resolution level allows high-line-count, low-order efficient gratings even into the deep ultraviolet region. Nanoreplication of gratings at the wafer level provides a pathway to devices of ultimate low cost.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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2006 (1)

2005 (2)

G. Fortin, and N. McCarthy, "Chirped holographic grating used as the dispersive element in an optical spectrometer," Appl. Opt. 44, 4874-4883 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wang et al., "Wafer-based nanostructure manufacturing for integrated nanooptic devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 474-485 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

Asakure, H.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beck, S.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstmann, P.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, G.

Greiner, C.

Honzawa, Y.

Hori, Y.

Iazikov, D.

Kato, M.

Krauss, T. F.

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, N.

Michaeli, A.

Mossberg, T. W.

Nishihara, H.

Salib, M.

Sasaki, T.

Serizawa, H.

Settle, M.

Sogawa, F.

Suhara, T.

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang et al., "Wafer-based nanostructure manufacturing for integrated nanooptic devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 474-485 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. J. Wang et al., "Wafer-based nanostructure manufacturing for integrated nanooptic devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 474-485 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, "Lithographically-fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 136-145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beck, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstmann, R. Baets, "Fabrication of photonic crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator using 248-nm deep UV photolithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 8, 928-934 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic illustrating grating design by computer-based holography: din, source-substrate distance, γ, design input angle, Rm, radius of the mth circular grating line concentric about point C. (b) grating profile: w, linewidth, Λ, grating period, h, line height.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Photograph of fabricated 12-inch silicon wafer containing focusing diffraction gratings. (b) scanning electron micrographs showing typical partial cross-section of one-dimensional focusing grating, Λ=464 nm, top line width=122 nm, bottom line width=205 nm, h=236 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of optical test setup. din, distance of input focal spot to grating, dout, distance of pinhole to grating (image distance). α (β) angle of input (diffracted) beam to grating normal.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power profiles of focused grating output beams. (a) scan along dispersion plane of 1D focusing grating. (b) and (c) scans parallel and normal to dispersion plane, respectively, for 2D focusing grating. Dashed lines, power profiles simulated via Fresnel-Huygens diffraction theory. Observed grating performance is diffraction-limited.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Photograph of optical test setup showing angularly dispersed grating output of 1D (top and bottom) and 2D (center) focusing gratings. (b) Close-up photograph of gratings on face of grating mount.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image distance dout as a function of input angle for fixed wavelength λ=632.8 nm (a) and as a function of input wavelength for fixed input angle α≈38° (b). din=50 cm for both plots.

Equations (1)

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R m = ( d i n 2 + 2 ( d in 2 + a 2 ) 1 2 ( m λ 2 ) + ( m λ 2 ) 2 ) 1 2 .

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