Abstract

Latching optical switches and optical logic gates with AND and OR functionality are demonstrated for the first time by the monolithic integration of a vertical cavity lasers with depleted optical thyristor structure. The thyristors have a low threshold current of 0.65 mA and a high on/off contrast ratio of more than 50 dB. By simply changing a reference switching voltage, this single device operates as two logic functions, optical logic AND and OR. The thyristor laser fabricated by using the oxidation process and has achieved high optical output power efficiency and a high sensitivity to the optical input light.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, and K. Kubota, "Vstep Optoelectronic Devices and Their Modules," LEOS 1992 Summer Topical Meeting 1, C28-C29 (1992).
  5. G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. Coldren, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999), Chap. 5.
  12. K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. C.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

An, X.

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armour, E.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beyette, F. R.

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, T. M.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, R. P.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chalmers, S. A.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. W.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ebeling, K. J.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feld, S. A.

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grabberr, M.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hains, C.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hamao, N.

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hsin, W.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jager, R.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. L.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, K.

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. G.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, B.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martinsson, H.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Myers, D. R.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Numai, T.

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, I.

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poirier, G.

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schaus, C. F.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, M.

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. Z

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. Z.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, Y.

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vawter, G. A.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vukusic, J. A.

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilmsen, C. W.

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanase, T.

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, K.

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zilko, J. L.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Kasahara, Y. Tashiro, N. Hamao, M. Sugimoto, and T. Yanase, "Double heterostructure optoelectronic switch as a dynamic memory with low-power consumption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 679-681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. Ogura, H. Kosaka, T. Numai, M. Sugimoto, and K. Kasahara, "Cascadable optical switching characteristics in vertical-to-surface transmission electrophotonic devices operated as vertical cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 799-801 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, K. D. Choquette, Y. K. Kim, S. Lee, and D. H. Woo, "Optical properties of selectively oxidized vertical cavity laser with depleted optical thyristor structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. R. Olbright, R. P. Bryan, K. Lear, T. M. Brennan, G. Poirier, Y. H. Lee, and J. L. Jewell, "Cascadable laser logic devices: discrete integration of phototransistors with surface-emitting laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 27, 216-217 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, R. P. SchneiderJr., K. L. Lear and K. M. Geib, "Low threshold voltage vertical-cavity lasers fabricated by selective oxidation," Electron. Lett. 30, 2043-2044 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. W. Wilmsen, F. R. Beyette, Jr., X. An, S. A. Feld, and K. M. Geib, "Smart pixels using the light amplifying optical switch (LAOS)," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 769-774 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, K. Zheng, E. Armour, W. Hsin, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Cascadable, latching photonic switch with high optical gain by the monolithic integration of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a pn-pn photothyristor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 1009-1011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Martinsson, J. A. Vukusic, M. Grabberr, R. Michalzik, R. Jager, K. J. Ebeling, A. Larsson, "Transverse mode selection in large-area oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using a shallow surface relief," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1536-1538 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, P. Zhou, Y. Lu, J. Cheng, R. E. Leibenguth, A. C. Adams, J. L. Zilko, K. L. Lear, J. C. Zolper, S. A. Chalmers, and G. A. Vawter, "Binary optical switch and programmable optical logic gate based on the integration of GaAs/AlGaAs surface-emitting lasers and heterojunction phototransistors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 398-401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z Sun, C. Hains, E. Armour, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Inverting and latching optical logic gates based on the integration of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and photothyristors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 157-159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. K. Choi, D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, S. Lee, D. H. Woo, and S. H. Kim, "AlGaAs/GaAs NpnP depleted optical thyristor using bottom mirror layers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2913-2920 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Washington, DC (1)

P. Zhou, J. Cheng, C. F. Schaus, S. Z. Sun, C. Hains, D. R. Myers, and G. A. Vawter, "Versatile bistable optical switches and latching optical logic using integrated photothyristors and surface-emitting lasers," Dig. 1991 Int. Electron Device Meet.Washington, DC,  1, 611-614 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Kawai, K. Kasahara, and K. Kubota, "Vstep Optoelectronic Devices and Their Modules," LEOS 1992 Summer Topical Meeting 1, C28-C29 (1992).

C. Wilmsen, H. Temkin, and L. Coldren, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999), Chap. 5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical S-shaped current-voltage characteristic of an optical thyristor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Cross-section of optical thyristor structure with external resistor (R) and driving voltage (VD). (b). optical pulse and voltage pulse for single operation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Current-voltage-light characteristics of the integrated VCL-DOT, showing changes of bistable electrical characteristics by optical input light intensity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Illustration of latchable optical switching using short optical pulses that impinge on the switch in the presence of a bias voltage pulse that exceeds the threshold of the VCL-DOT. Demonstration of digital optical logic operations (b). OR and (c). AND using a VCL-DOT. Each photograph contains four traces showing the bias voltage, optical inputs A and B, and the optical output pulses, respectively.

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