Abstract

Polarization sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) is used for measuring the complex fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) reflection coefficient. We determine the beat length directly from oscillations in the OLCR amplitude with a resolution of 10-6 and a spatial resolution only limited by the minimum beat length or the coherence length of the light source. Using the OLCR amplitude and phase in combination with an inverse scattering algorithm the birefringence is retrieved with a resolution of 2×10-5 while the spatial resolution is 25 µm. The two developed techniques are applied for measuring position, magnitude and footprint of induced birefringence of an FBG under uniform and nonuniform diametric loading.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Torres and L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
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  14. S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
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  15. M. Leblanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, "Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1091-1093 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Gillooly, H. Dobb, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Distributed load sensor by use of a chirped moire fiber Bragg grating," Appl. Opt. 43, 6454-6457 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, and B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).
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  23. D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Precise beat length measurement of birefringent fibres with dual channel low-coherence reflectometer," Electron. Lett. 37, 215-216 (2001).
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  24. B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of local beat length and differential group delay in installed single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1389-1394 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Express 13, 666-674 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Local characterization of fiber Bragg gratings complex coupling coefficient," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Torres and L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Precise beat length measurement of birefringent fibres with dual channel low-coherence reflectometer," Electron. Lett. 37, 215-216 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

M. Leblanc, S. T. Vohra, T. E. Tsai, and E. J. Friebele, "Transverse load sensing by use of pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1091-1093 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of fibre Bragg grating dispersion," Electron. Lett. 35, 1485-1486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, and B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Takada, A. Himeno, and K.-i. Yukimalsu, "High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1998-2005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1977 (1)

A. Simon and R. Ulrich, "Evolution of polarization along a single-mode fibre," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517-520 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Atia, W. A.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

A. M. Gillooly, H. Dobb, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Distributed load sensor by use of a chirped moire fiber Bragg grating," Appl. Opt. 43, 6454-6457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borchert, B.

Bosia, F.

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Botsis, J.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chisholm, K.

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chwang, J.

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cole, M. J.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dave, D. P.

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Precise beat length measurement of birefringent fibres with dual channel low-coherence reflectometer," Electron. Lett. 37, 215-216 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dobb, H.

Dunkel, G. R.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, S. D.

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of fibre Bragg grating dispersion," Electron. Lett. 35, 1485-1486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Facchini, M.

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feced, R.

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Felmeri, I.

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fonjallaz, P. Y.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

Froggatt, M. E.

Galtarossa, A.

Geiger, H.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giaccari, P.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Local characterization of fiber Bragg gratings complex coupling coefficient," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gifford, D. K.

Gilgen, H. H.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gillooly, A.

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gillooly, A. M.

Gisin, N.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heise, G.

Himeno, A.

K. Takada, A. Himeno, and K.-i. Yukimalsu, "High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1998-2005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, L.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambelet, P.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leblanc, M.

Limberger, H. G.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Local characterization of fiber Bragg gratings complex coupling coefficient," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

A. M. Gillooly, H. Dobb, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Distributed load sensor by use of a chirped moire fiber Bragg grating," Appl. Opt. 43, 6454-6457 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Precise beat length measurement of birefringent fibres with dual channel low-coherence reflectometer," Electron. Lett. 37, 215-216 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, L.

S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muriel, M. A.

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Namihira, Y.

Y. Namihira, "Opto-elastic constant in single mode optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1078 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

Noe, R.

Ohn, M. M.

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palmieri, L.

Passy, R.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pizzinat, A.

Reecht, J.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rochford, K. B.

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of fibre Bragg grating dispersion," Electron. Lett. 35, 1485-1486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R.

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Giaccari, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Local characterization of fiber Bragg gratings complex coupling coefficient," Opt. Lett. 28, 598-600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salathé, R. P.

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

Schiano, M.

Shu, X.

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

A. Simon and R. Ulrich, "Evolution of polarization along a single-mode fibre," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517-520 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Singh, H.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skaar, J.

O. H. Waagaard and J. Skaar, "Synthesis of birefringent reflective gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1207-1220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soller, B. J.

Sugden, K.

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, A. Himeno, and K.-i. Yukimalsu, "High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1998-2005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, J. Noda, and R. Ulrich, "Precision measurement of modal birefringence of highly birefringent fibers by periodic lateral force," Appl. Opt. 24, 4387- 4391 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tambosso, T.

Tjin, S. C.

S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torres, P.

P. Torres and L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. E.

Ulrich, R.

Valente, L. C. G.

P. Torres and L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, S. T.

Volanthen, M.

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Von der Weid, J. P.

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waagaard, O. H.

Wagreich, R. B.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, M. S.

Yukimalsu, K.-i.

K. Takada, A. Himeno, and K.-i. Yukimalsu, "High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1998-2005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, C.

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Simon and R. Ulrich, "Evolution of polarization along a single-mode fibre," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 517-520 (1977).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, K. Chisholm, I. Felmeri, K. Sugden, A. Gillooly, Z. Lin, and I. Bennion, "Highly sensitive transverse load sensing with reversible sampled fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3003-3005 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, "Effects of diametric load on fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in low birefringent fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 1223-1224 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, "Precise beat length measurement of birefringent fibres with dual channel low-coherence reflectometer," Electron. Lett. 37, 215-216 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Dyer and K. B. Rochford, "Low-coherence interferometric measurements of fibre Bragg grating dispersion," Electron. Lett. 35, 1485-1486 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Volanthen, H. Geiger, M. J. Cole, and J. P. Dakin, "Measurement of arbitrary strain profiles within fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 32, 1028-1029 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Ohn, S. Y. Huang, R. M. Measures, and J. Chwang, "Arbitrary strain profile measurement within fibre gratings using interferometric Fourier transform technique," Electron. Lett. 33, 1242-1243 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Feced, M. N. Zervas, and M. A. Muriel, "An efficient inverse scattering algorithm for the design of nonuniform fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1105-1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Skaar, L. Wang, and T. Erdogan, "On the synthesis of fiber Bragg gratings by layer peeling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 165-173 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Huttner, J. Reecht, N. Gisin, R. Passy, and J. P. Von der Weid, "Local birefringence measurements in single-mode fibers with coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1458 -1460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lambelet, P. Y. Fonjallaz, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, C. Zimmer, and H. H. Gilgen, "Bragg grating characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 565-567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

K. Takada, A. Himeno, and K.-i. Yukimalsu, "High sensitivity and submillimeter resolution optical time-domain reflectometry based on low-coherence interference," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1998-2005 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, M. Schiano, and T. Tambosso, "Measurement of local beat length and differential group delay in installed single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1389-1394 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Sandel, R. Noe, G. Heise, and B. Borchert, "Optical network analysis and longitudinal structure characterization of fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2435-2442 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Namihira, "Opto-elastic constant in single mode optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1078 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Torres and L. C. G. Valente, "Spectral response of locally pressed fiber Bragg grating," Opt. Commun. 208, 285-291 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tjin, L. Mohanty, and N. Q. Ngo, "Pressure sensing with embedded chirped fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 216, 115-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Smart Mater. Struct. (2)

P. Giaccari, G. R. Dunkel, L. Humbert, J. Botsis, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "On direct determination of non-uniform internal strain fields using fibre Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct. 14, 127-136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bosia, P. Giaccari, J. Botsis, M. Facchini, H. G. Limberger, and R. Salathé, "Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg grating sensors subjected to a two-dimensional strain field," Smart Mater. Struct. 12, 925-934 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Giaccari, "Fiber Bragg gratings characterization by Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometry and sensing applications," Microengineering Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, PhD thesis no. 2726, Lausanne (2003).

D. Coric, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "Direct measurement of fiber Bragg grating local birefringence using optical low coherence reflectometry," in 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS'17, M. Voet, R. Willsch, W. Ecke, J. Jones, B. Culshaw, eds., Proc. SPIE 5855, 154-157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Coric, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, "Distributed sensing of diametric load using Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry and fiber Bragg gratings," in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, BGPP/ACOFT'2005, Sydney (2005).

R. J. Espejo and S. D. Dyer, "High spatial resolution measurements of transverse stress in a fiber Bragg grating using four-state analysis low-coherence interferometry and layer-peeling," Proc. SPIE 6167, 616707, San Diego, CA, United States (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the optical low-coherence reflectometer. SLD: superluminescent diode; TL: tunable laser; OS: optical switch; C: circulator; PEM: piezoelectric modulator; TS: translational stage; FBG: grating under test; CPL: 3 dB coupler; BD: balanced detector; POL: polarizer; PCL1 and PCL2: polarization controllers; T: transmission spectra detector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

OLCR Amplitude as a function of geometrical distance along uniform Bragg grating written in PM fiber; Probing on the fast axis (top), probing at 45 degrees (bottom).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Local Bragg wavelength for two main axis of PM-FBG (left) and birefringence (right), as a function of a position in the grating (obtained from OLCR measurement and inverse scattering).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Induced birefringence as a function of beat length and load during uniform FBG loading (spectral measurements, red circles, are shown for a compari

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Uniform FBG under local diametric loading (the loading element has two 2 mm sections separated by 2 mm) (a) OLCR amplitude (b) OLCR phase (c) Birefringence obtained from the amplitude (method 1) and the phase (method 2). The second y-axis is calculated using Eq. (7).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B = λ S λ F 2 Λ
L B = λ B
Δ n ac ( z ) = λ D η π q ( z )
λ eff ( z ) = ( 1 λ D + 1 4 π · n eff d ϕ q ( z ) dz ) 1
Δ n dc ( z ) = λ D 4 π · η ( d θ ( z ) dz d ϕ q ( z ) dz )
Δ n dc ( z ) = λ D 4 π · η d ϕ q ( z ) dz
B ( z ) = λ eff , S ( z ) λ eff , F ( z ) 2 Λ
B = 8 C π d F L

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