Abstract

A modified Barium Gallo-Germanate glass has been developed as an exit window for high energy lasers operating in the mid-infrared wavelength region. All the physical properties, for application as a window for high energy laser systems have been measured. Absorption loss and thermo-optic coefficient were identified as key in developing the Barium Gallo-Germanate glass for high energy laser applications. A purification method was developed to reduce the absorption loss of the glass from 6×10-2 cm-1 to 2×10-3 cm-1 at 3.8 µm. Manufacturability in large size windows has been demonstrated with the fabrication of an 18″ diameter prototype window. Modified Barium Gallo-Germanate glasses have also been developed with lower thermo-optic coefficient resulting in lower optical path distortion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P.L. Higby and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of Barium Gallium Germanate Glasses,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 163303–308 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  2. J.M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth Gallogermanate Glasses, in Rare Elements in Glasses,” edited by J.E. Shelby, Trans Tech Publications, 317–343 (1994).
  3. J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. M. Jewell and Aggarwal I D. Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses[J].J Non-Cryst Solids 181, 189–199 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  7. I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.
  8. J.S. Browder, S.S. Ballard, and P. Klocek, “Physical Properties of Crystalline Infrared Materials” in “Handbook of Infrared Materials,” edited byP. Klocek, Mercel Dekker Inc. Publications, 193–425, (1991).

1997 (1)

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

J. M. Jewell and Aggarwal I D. Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses[J].J Non-Cryst Solids 181, 189–199 (1995)
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P.L. Higby and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of Barium Gallium Germanate Glasses,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 163303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.

Aggarwal, I.D.

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

P.L. Higby and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of Barium Gallium Germanate Glasses,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 163303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ballard, S.S.

J.S. Browder, S.S. Ballard, and P. Klocek, “Physical Properties of Crystalline Infrared Materials” in “Handbook of Infrared Materials,” edited byP. Klocek, Mercel Dekker Inc. Publications, 193–425, (1991).

Bayya, S. S.

I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.

Bayya, S.S.

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

Browder, J.S.

J.S. Browder, S.S. Ballard, and P. Klocek, “Physical Properties of Crystalline Infrared Materials” in “Handbook of Infrared Materials,” edited byP. Klocek, Mercel Dekker Inc. Publications, 193–425, (1991).

Busse, L.E.

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chin, G. D.

I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.

Crahan, K.

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Harbison, B.B.

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Higby, P.L.

J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

P.L. Higby and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of Barium Gallium Germanate Glasses,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 163303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

I D., Aggarwal

J. M. Jewell and Aggarwal I D. Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses[J].J Non-Cryst Solids 181, 189–199 (1995)
[Crossref]

Jewell, J. M.

J. M. Jewell and Aggarwal I D. Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses[J].J Non-Cryst Solids 181, 189–199 (1995)
[Crossref]

Jewell, J.M.

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

J.M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth Gallogermanate Glasses, in Rare Elements in Glasses,” edited by J.E. Shelby, Trans Tech Publications, 317–343 (1994).

Klocek, P.

J.S. Browder, S.S. Ballard, and P. Klocek, “Physical Properties of Crystalline Infrared Materials” in “Handbook of Infrared Materials,” edited byP. Klocek, Mercel Dekker Inc. Publications, 193–425, (1991).

Sanghera, J. S.

I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.

Sanghera, J.S.

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

J Non-Cryst Solids (1)

J. M. Jewell and Aggarwal I D. Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses[J].J Non-Cryst Solids 181, 189–199 (1995)
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J.M. Jewell, P.L. Higby, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3- Ga2O3-GeO2 (R=Y, Al, La, and Gd) Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 [3] 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Non. Cryst. Solids (2)

S.S. Bayya, B.B. Harbison, J.S. Sanghera, and I.D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses with Enhanced Properties,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 212198–207 (1997).
[Crossref]

P.L. Higby and I.D. Aggarwal, “Properties of Barium Gallium Germanate Glasses,” J. Non. Cryst. Solids 163303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

SPIE Proc. (1)

J.M. Jewell, L.E. Busse, K. Crahan, B.B. Harbison, and I.D. Aggarwal, “Optical Properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 Glasses for Fiber and Bulk Optical Properties,” SPIE Proc. 2287, 154–163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

I. D. Aggarwal, S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, and J. S. Sanghera, “Vis-IR Transmitting BGG Glass Windows,” Proceedings of DoD Electromagnetic Symposium 2004.

J.S. Browder, S.S. Ballard, and P. Klocek, “Physical Properties of Crystalline Infrared Materials” in “Handbook of Infrared Materials,” edited byP. Klocek, Mercel Dekker Inc. Publications, 193–425, (1991).

J.M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth Gallogermanate Glasses, in Rare Elements in Glasses,” edited by J.E. Shelby, Trans Tech Publications, 317–343 (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Glass forming region in the BGG system

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectra showing the reduction of loss at 3.8 µm by glass purification

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical vis-IR Transmission spectrum of a 0.5″ thick BGG glass

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Figure of Merits calculated for BGG and multispectral ZnS: (a) thermal distortion FOM(χ), (b) Temperature Rise FOM(ΔT), (c) Thickness FOM(L) and (d) overall FOM(OPD). The FOM(OPD) of BGG (Expectrd) is based on a potential reduction in absorption loss to 6×10-4 cm-1 (same as that for Multi-Spectral ZnS)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) An 18″ diameter polished BGG glass window; and (b) a 3.5″ diameter BGG dome

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Physical properties of BGG glass compared with multi-spectral ZnS

Tables Icon

Table 2. Modified BGG glasses and their dn/dT and thermal distortion FOM (calculated)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FOM ( OPD ) = FOM ( χ ) . FOM ( ΔT ) . FOM ( L )
FOM ( χ ) = ( n 1 ) . ( 1 + v ) . CTE + dn dT + n 3 . Y . CTE . ( q 11 + q 12 ) 4
FOM ( ΔT ) = α ( ρ . C p )
FOM ( L ) = ( ( 3 + v ) σ max )
dn dT = ( ( n 2 1 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) 6 n ) . ( ϕ β )

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