Abstract

We investigate the implementation of surface emission via a second order grating in terahertz quantum cascade lasers with double-metal waveguides. Absorbing edge structures are designed to enforce antireflecting boundary conditions, which ensure distributed feedback in the cavity. The grating duty cycle is chosen in order to maximize slope efficiency. Fabricated devices demonstrate surface emission output powers that are comparable to those measured from edge-emitting double metal waveguide structures without gratings. The slope efficiency of surface emitting lasers is twice that of double-metal edge emitting structures. Surface emitting lasers show single mode behavior, with a beam divergence along the laser ridge of approximately six degrees.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. H. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Richie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-21, 144 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of terahertz surface emitting quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Chinn, "Effects of mirror reflectivity in a distributed-feedback laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 574 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of terahertz surface emitting quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. H. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Richie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-21, 144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

S. R. Chinn, "Effects of mirror reflectivity in a distributed-feedback laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 574 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Austerer, M.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. H. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Richie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. H. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Richie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

S. R. Chinn, "Effects of mirror reflectivity in a distributed-feedback laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 574 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cockburn, J. W.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demichel, O.

Faist, J.

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finger, N.

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. R.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, M.

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Green, R.

Green, R. P.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-21, 144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. N.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoyler, N.

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasalynas, I.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazarinov, R. F.

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-21, 144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klaassen, T. O.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kohen, S.

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krysa, A. B.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losco, T.

Macomber, S. H.

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahler, L.

Mauro, C.

Noll, R. J.

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orlova, E. E.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of terahertz surface emitting quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richie, D. A.

Ritchie, D. A.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, J. S.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schrenk, W.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of terahertz surface emitting quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C.V.

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tamosiunas, V.

Tredicucci, A.

O. Demichel, L. Mahler, T. Losco, C. Mauro, R. Green, J. H. Xu, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, D. A. Richie, and V. Tamosiunas, "Surface plasmon photonic structures in terahertz quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 5335 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, B. S.

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. R.

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, and D. A. Ritchie, "2.9 THz quantum cascade lasers operating up to 70 K in continuous wave," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1674 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Unterrainer, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers with double metal-semiconductor waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3060 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ≈100 μm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, J. R. Gao, E. E. Orlova, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, "Beam patterns of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with subwavelength cavity dimensions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 μm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Scalari, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, "Terahertz bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers based on optical-phonon scattering extraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

R. F. Kazarinov and C. H. Henry, "Second-order distributed feedback lasers with mode selection provided by first-order radiation losses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QW-21, 144 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Noll and S. H. Macomber, "Analysis of grating surface emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 456 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Finger, W. Schrenk, and E. Gornik, "Analysis of TM-polarized DFB laser structures with metal surface gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schubert and F. Rana, "Analysis of terahertz surface emitting quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Chinn, "Effects of mirror reflectivity in a distributed-feedback laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 574 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, "Effect of external reflectors on longitudinal modes of distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 154 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, and Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C.V. Shank, "Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic representation of (a) double- and (b) single-metal THz QCL waveguides. The component of the magnetic field of the mode parallel to the layers of the active region (Hy) is plotted.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the surface emitting THz QCL design: (a) side view and (b) top view. The side view shows one grating unit. (c) Optical microscope image of the processed devices: top and side view (inset) of the ridges.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Antisymmetric (a) and symmetric (b) eigenmode profiles (Hy component) for the infinite grating structure. The gold cladding is colored in gray. (c) Eigenmode frequency (in wavenumbers) as a function of the grating duty cycle for a grating structure with a periodicity of 30.4µm. Inset: Real part of the coupling constant calculated using Eq. (1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

L-I and I-V (a) and spectra (b) for Fabry-Perot structures with and without an absorbing edge at 5K.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). L-I and I-V characteristics at 5K of surface-emitting devices with a 1.5mm-long grating section, a grating duty cycle of 0.65, and different grating periodicities. (b) L-I and I-V characteristics at different temperatures for a surface-emitting device with a 30.4µm grating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectra from 1.5mm long surface-emitting devices operated in pulsed mode at T=5K. Spectra are normalized to unity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Far-field profile along the ridge (z-axis) of a 30.4µ surface-emitting structure operated in pulsed mode at T=5K. The FWHM is approximately 6 degrees.

Equations (1)

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κ = ( k s k as ) k g 2 k 0 + α s surf + α s wg α as wg 2 i

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