Abstract

A high efficiency broadband grating coupler for Silicon-On-Insulator waveguides was designed. The grating coupler is defined by locally adding a poly-Silicon layer on top of the existing waveguide layer structure prior to grating etching. Adding this poly-Silicon layer reshapes the grating structure which changes its diffraction properties. Coupling efficiencies as high as 78% at a wavelength of 1.55µm are calculated and the optical 3dB bandwidth of the device is about 85nm. The device layout is compatible with standard CMOS technology processing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C.C. Lin, D. Pustai and D.W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 11, 3555-3561 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Compact grating couplers between optical fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wire waveguides with 69% coupling efficiency," Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.) PDP15 (2006).
  8. D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 2749-2752 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," IEE Proc.-J:Optoelectron.  149, 161-169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C.C. Lin, D. Pustai and D.W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 11, 3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," IEE Proc.-J:Optoelectron.  149, 161-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 2749-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," IEE Proc.-J:Optoelectron.  149, 161-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 2749-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," IEE Proc.-J:Optoelectron.  149, 161-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, T.

Dumon, P.

Frandsen, L. H.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J. H.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.C.

Luyssaert, B.

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Nordin, G. P.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D.W.

Pustai, D.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for Silicon-on-Insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 2749-2752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman and D. Van Thourhout, "Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator fabricated with CMOS technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada and H. Morita, "Low loss mode size converter from 0.3μm square Si waveguides to single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1669-1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single mode fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J:Optoelectron (1)

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," IEE Proc.-J:Optoelectron.  149, 161-169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jap. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071-6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Wang, J. H. Jiang and G. P. Nordin, "Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator planar waveguides," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1884-1887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue and R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout and R. Baets, "Compact grating couplers between optical fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator photonic wire waveguides with 69% coupling efficiency," Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.) PDP15 (2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed device layout for high efficiency coupling to an optical fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

CMOS compatible fabrication process for the poly-Silicon overlay grating couplers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Influence of the grating etch depth, poly-Silicon overlay thickness and grating period on the directionality of a uniform grating structure (grating duty cycle 50%).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field plot comparison of the optimized standard grating coupler design and the optimized grating coupler structure using a poly-Silicon overlay.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Evolution of the device efficiency as a function of the genetic algorithm population generation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fiber coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength (a) and a field plot of the grating coupler structure excited by the TE optical fiber mode at a wavelength of 1.55µm (b).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Influence of the poly-Silicon overlay layer thickness (a) and the grating etch depth (b) on the fiber to waveguide grating coupler spectrum.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Influence of the alignment between the poly-Silicon overlay and the grating etch mask on the coupling efficiency at 1.55µm - a negative mask misalignment results in a narrower first grating tooth - (a) and the influence of random variations of the grating coupler tooth and slit widths on the grating coupler spectrum (b).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Influence of the fiber position along the direction of propagation of the excited Silicon waveguide mode on the grating coupler efficiency.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optimal grating tooth and slit widths obtained from a genetic algorithm optimization

Equations (1)

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η = E × H fib * · d s 2

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