Abstract

We present a new class of magnetically shaped deformable liquid mirrors made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). Deformable liquid mirrors offer advantages with respect to deformable solid mirrors: large deformations, low costs and the possibility of very large mirrors with added aberration control. They have some disadvantages (e.g. slower response time). We made and tested a deformable mirror, producing axially symmetrical wavefront aberrations by applying electric currents to 5 concentric coils made of copper wire wound on aluminum cylinders. Each of these coils generates a magnetic field which combines to deform the surface of a ferrofluid to the desired shape. We have carried out laboratory tests on a 5 cm diameter prototype mirror and demonstrated defocus as well as Seidel and Zernike spherical aberrations having amplitudes up to 20 µm, which was the limiting measurable amplitude of our equipment.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  8. R. Cabanac and E. F. Borra, "A search for peculiar objects with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory 3-m Liquid Mirror Telescope," Astrophys. J. 509, 309-323 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]

2006

2004

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey and E. Artigau, "Floating Mirrors," Astrophys. J. 516, L115-L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Sica and T. Russell, "Measurements of the effects of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere using parametric models of density fluctuations. Part I," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1308-1329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Cabanac and E. F. Borra, "A search for peculiar objects with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory 3-m Liquid Mirror Telescope," Astrophys. J. 509, 309-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Wuerker, "Bistatic LMT Lidar Alignment," Opt. Eng. 36, 1421-1424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Hickson and M. K. Mulrooney, "University of British Columbia-NASA Multi-Narrowband Survey. I. Description and Photometric Properties of the Survey," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 115, 35-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Girard and E. F. Borra, "Optical tests of a 2.5-m diameter liquid mirror II: Behavior under external perturbations and scattered light measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 25, 6278-6288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1994

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, "A liquid adaptive mirror," Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17-L19 (1994).

W. L. H. Shutter and L. A. Whitehead, "A wide sky coverage ferrofluid mercury telescope," Astrophys. J. 424, L139-L141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. A. Ealey and F. Washeba, "Continuous facesheet low voltage deformable mirror," Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

K.C Gordon, J. J. McGarvey and K. P. Taylor, "Enhanced Raman Scattering from metal liquid like films formed from Silver Sols," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6814-6817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

V. V. Kiryushin and A. V. Nazarenko, "Interaction of a magnetic liquid with a conductor containing current and a permanent magnet," Fluid Dyn. 23, 306-311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Yogev and S. Efrima, "Novel silver metal liquid like films," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5754-5760 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

1979

1977

1967

M. D. Cowley and R. E. Rosensweig, "The interfacial stability of a ferromagnetic fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 671-688 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).

Argall, S.

Artigau, E.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey and E. Artigau, "Floating Mirrors," Astrophys. J. 516, L115-L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basrour, S.

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bergamasco, R.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

Boily, E.

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borra, E. F.

E. F. Borra, D. Brousseau and A. Vincent, "Large magnetic liquid mirrors," Astron. Astrophys. 446, 389-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey and E. Artigau, "Floating Mirrors," Astrophys. J. 516, L115-L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Cabanac and E. F. Borra, "A search for peculiar objects with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory 3-m Liquid Mirror Telescope," Astrophys. J. 509, 309-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Girard and E. F. Borra, "Optical tests of a 2.5-m diameter liquid mirror II: Behavior under external perturbations and scattered light measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 25, 6278-6288 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Sica, S. Sargoytchev, E. F. Borra, L. Girard, S. Argall, C. T. Sarrow and S. Flatt. "Lidar measurements taken with a large aperture liquid mirror: 1.The Rayleigh-Scatter system," Appl. Opt. 34, 6925 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Brousseau, D.

E. F. Borra, D. Brousseau and A. Vincent, "Large magnetic liquid mirrors," Astron. Astrophys. 446, 389-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabanac, R.

R. Cabanac and E. F. Borra, "A search for peculiar objects with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory 3-m Liquid Mirror Telescope," Astrophys. J. 509, 309-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Content, R.

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cowley, M. D.

M. D. Cowley and R. E. Rosensweig, "The interfacial stability of a ferromagnetic fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 671-688 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Cox, I. G.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cugat, O.

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dallaire, M.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Divoux, C.

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ealey, M. A.

M. A. Ealey and F. Washeba, "Continuous facesheet low voltage deformable mirror," Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Efrima, S.

D. Yogev and S. Efrima, "Novel silver metal liquid like films," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5754-5760 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flatt, S.

Freeman, R. H.

Gingras, J.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Girard, L.

Gordon, K.C

K.C Gordon, J. J. McGarvey and K. P. Taylor, "Enhanced Raman Scattering from metal liquid like films formed from Silver Sols," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6814-6817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grosso, R. P.

Guirao, A.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hickson, P.

P. Hickson and M. K. Mulrooney, "University of British Columbia-NASA Multi-Narrowband Survey. I. Description and Photometric Properties of the Survey," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 115, 35-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamar, C. A.

Kiryushin, V. V.

V. V. Kiryushin and A. V. Nazarenko, "Interaction of a magnetic liquid with a conductor containing current and a permanent magnet," Fluid Dyn. 23, 306-311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Laird, P.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, "A liquid adaptive mirror," Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17-L19 (1994).

McGarvey, J. J.

K.C Gordon, J. J. McGarvey and K. P. Taylor, "Enhanced Raman Scattering from metal liquid like films formed from Silver Sols," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6814-6817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mead, R.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).

Mounaix, P.

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mulrooney, M. K.

P. Hickson and M. K. Mulrooney, "University of British Columbia-NASA Multi-Narrowband Survey. I. Description and Photometric Properties of the Survey," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 115, 35-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nazarenko, A. V.

V. V. Kiryushin and A. V. Nazarenko, "Interaction of a magnetic liquid with a conductor containing current and a permanent magnet," Fluid Dyn. 23, 306-311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nelder, J. A.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).

Ninane, N. M.

Pearson, J. E

Porter, J.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, "A liquid adaptive mirror," Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17-L19 (1994).

Reyne, G.

O. Cugat, S. Basrour, C. Divoux, P. Mounaix and G. Reyne, "Deformable magnetic mirror for adaptive optics: technological aspects," Sens. Actuators A 89,1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritcey, A. M.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey and E. Artigau, "Floating Mirrors," Astrophys. J. 516, L115-L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosensweig, R. E.

M. D. Cowley and R. E. Rosensweig, "The interfacial stability of a ferromagnetic fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 671-688 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Russell, T.

R. J. Sica and T. Russell, "Measurements of the effects of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere using parametric models of density fluctuations. Part I," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1308-1329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sargoytchev, S.

Sarrow, C. T.

Shutter, W. L. H.

W. L. H. Shutter and L. A. Whitehead, "A wide sky coverage ferrofluid mercury telescope," Astrophys. J. 424, L139-L141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sica, R.

Sica, R. J.

R. J. Sica and T. Russell, "Measurements of the effects of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere using parametric models of density fluctuations. Part I," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1308-1329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinhaus, E.

Szapiel, S.

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K. P.

K.C Gordon, J. J. McGarvey and K. P. Taylor, "Enhanced Raman Scattering from metal liquid like films formed from Silver Sols," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 6814-6817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, L. M.

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, A.

E. F. Borra, D. Brousseau and A. Vincent, "Large magnetic liquid mirrors," Astron. Astrophys. 446, 389-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vuelban, E. M.

Washeba, F.

M. A. Ealey and F. Washeba, "Continuous facesheet low voltage deformable mirror," Opt. Eng. 29, 1191 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, L. A.

W. L. H. Shutter and L. A. Whitehead, "A wide sky coverage ferrofluid mercury telescope," Astrophys. J. 424, L139-L141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, "Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 18, 1793-1803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wuerker, R.

R. Wuerker, "Bistatic LMT Lidar Alignment," Opt. Eng. 36, 1421-1424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yellin, M.

Yockell-Lelievre, H.

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yogev, D.

D. Yogev and S. Efrima, "Novel silver metal liquid like films," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5754-5760 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

R. Ragazzoni and E. Marchetti, "A liquid adaptive mirror," Astron. Astrophys. 283, L17-L19 (1994).

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey, R. Bergamasco, P. Laird, J. Gingras, M. Dallaire, L. Da Silva and H. Yockell-Lelievre "Nanoengineered Astronomical Optics," Astron. Astrophys. 419, 777-782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, D. Brousseau and A. Vincent, "Large magnetic liquid mirrors," Astron. Astrophys. 446, 389-393 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J.

W. L. H. Shutter and L. A. Whitehead, "A wide sky coverage ferrofluid mercury telescope," Astrophys. J. 424, L139-L141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, A. M. Ritcey and E. Artigau, "Floating Mirrors," Astrophys. J. 516, L115-L118 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Hickson and M. K. Mulrooney, "University of British Columbia-NASA Multi-Narrowband Survey. I. Description and Photometric Properties of the Survey," Astrophys. J.Suppl. 115, 35-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Cabanac and E. F. Borra, "A search for peculiar objects with the NASA Orbital Debris Observatory 3-m Liquid Mirror Telescope," Astrophys. J. 509, 309-323 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Borra, R. Content, L. Girard, S. Szapiel, L. M. Tremblay and E. Boily, "Liquid mirrors: Optical shop tests and contributions to the technology," Astrophys. J. 393, 829-847 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Comput. J.

J. A. Nelder and R. Mead, "A simplex method for function minimization," Comput. J. 7, 308 (1965).

Fluid Dyn.

V. V. Kiryushin and A. V. Nazarenko, "Interaction of a magnetic liquid with a conductor containing current and a permanent magnet," Fluid Dyn. 23, 306-311 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

R. J. Sica and T. Russell, "Measurements of the effects of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere using parametric models of density fluctuations. Part I," J. Atmos. Sci. 56, 1308-1329 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech.

M. D. Cowley and R. E. Rosensweig, "The interfacial stability of a ferromagnetic fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 30, 671-688 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the mirror. The outer coil has a diameter of 10 cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical wavefronts (left), measured wavefronts (center) and aberration coefficients histograms (right). The Mach-Zehnder interferometer measurements shown are for the best experimentally achieved combination of currents. Illustrated terms are: a) defocus, b) Seidel spherical aberration and c) Zernike spherical aberration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude of the defocus term as a function of the current multiple. Current multiple of 1 corresponds to a) in Fig. 2. Even at the maximum amplitude of the defocus, remaining aberration terms are well below 5% and decrease as current multiple increases.

Equations (2)

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h = μ 0 ( μ r 1 ) 2 ρ g ( μ r H n 2 + H t 2 )
h = ( μ r 1 ) 2 μ r μ 0 ρ g ( B n 2 + μ r B t 2 )

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