Abstract

It is demonstrated that the carrier-envelope (CE) phase of pulses from a high power ultrafast laser system with a grating-based stretcher and compressor can be stabilized to a root mean square (rms) value of 180 mrad over almost 2 hours, excluding a brief re-locking period. The stabilization was accomplished via feedback control of the stretcher grating separation in the stretcher. It shows that the long term CE phase stability of a grating based chirped pulse amplification system can be as good as that of lasers using a glass-block stretcher and a prism pair compressor. Moreover, by adjusting the grating separation to preset values, the relative CE phase could be locked to an arbitrary value in the range of 2π. This method is better than using a pair of wedge plates to adjust the phase after a hollow-core fiber compressor. The CE phase stabilization after a hollow-core fiber compressor was confirmed by a CE-phase meter based on the measurement of the left-to-right asymmetry of electrons produced by above-threshold ionization.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Zenghu Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 9758–9763 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

2006 (7)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Gagnon, I. Thomann, A. Paul, A. L. Lytle, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and A. S. Sandhu, “Long-term carrier-envelope phase stability from a grating-based, chirped pulse amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1866–1868 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, E. Moon, and Zenghu Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by variation of grating separation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3113–3115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Zenghu Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, H. Takamiya, K. Nishijima, T. Homma, H. Takahashi, K. Okubo, S. Nakamura, and Y. Koyamada, “Carrier-envelope-phase stabilized chirped-pulse amplification system scalable to higher pulse energies,” Opt. Express 12, 2070–2080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Albrecht, A. W.

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Baltuška, A.

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burgdörfer, J.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J. -P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J.-P.

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Zenghu

C. Li, E. Moon, and Zenghu Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by variation of grating separation,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3113–3115 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moon, C. Li, Z. Duan, J. Tackett, K. L. Corwin, B. R. Washburn, and Zenghu Chang, “Reduction of fast carrier-envelope phase jitter in femtosecond laser amplifiers,” Opt. Express 14, 9758–9763 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zenghu Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt.2006. in press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheriaux, G.

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, Z.

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eremina, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faeder, S. M. G.

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, E.

Ghimire, S.

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

Gohle, C.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homma, T.

Hong, K.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hybl, J. D.

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Jonas, D. M.

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Keeffe, K. O.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, Y.

Koyamada, Y.

Krausz, F.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemell, C.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, L.

Lezius, M.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Lindner, F.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lytle, A. L.

Mével, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E.

Mourou, G. A.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nakamura, S.

Nees, J. A.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishijima, K.

Nisoli, M.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okubo, K.

Pascolini, M.

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, A.

Paulus, G. G.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Power, E.

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

Sandner, W.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schä1tzel, M. G.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schätzel, M. G.

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, B.

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tackett, J.

Takada, H.

Takahashi, H.

Takamiya, H.

Thomann, I.

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. M.

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, T.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A.-J.

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

Washburn, B. R.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovler, V. S.

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Hong, J. Lee, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, “Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of high-contrast femtosecond pulses with a relativistic intensity,” App. Phys. Lett. 89, 31113–31115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. G. Schätzel, F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, E. Goulielmakis, A. Baltuška, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Long-term stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1021–1025 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Baltuška, M. Uiberacker, E. Goulielmakis, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovler, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Phase-controlled amplification of few-cycle laser pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 972–989 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, S. M. G. Faeder, and D. M. Jonas, “Experimental distinction between phase shifts and time delays, Implications for femtosecond spectroscopy and coherent control of chemical reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 10934–10956 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, and M. Nisoli, “Imaging of recombination events in high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized few-optical-cycle pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 63–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan, S. Ghimire, and Zenghu Chang, “Generation of the attosecond extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum by a polarization gating,” J. Mod. Opt. 52, 277–283 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

S. Ghimire, B. Shan, C. Wang, and Zenghu Chang, “High-energy 6.2-fs pulses for attosecond pulse generation,” Laser Phys. 15, 838–842 (2005).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Rauschenberger, T. Fuji, M. Hentschel, A.-J. Verhoef, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized amplifier system,” Laser Phys. Lett. 3, 37–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

A. Baltuška, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature (London)  421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolutephase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature (London)  414, 182–184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Atomic transient recorder,” Nature (London)  427, 817–821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Physics (1)

I. J. Sola, E. Mével, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. -P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Controlling Attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics (London)  2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Zenghu Chang, “Single attosecond pulse and xuv supercontinuum in the high-order harmonic plateau,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 043802 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of Carrier-Envelope Phase Differences of Few-Optical-Cycle Light Pulses in Single-Shot High-Order-Harmonic Spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Measurement of the Phase of Few-Cycle Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schä1tzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential Double Ionization at the Single-Optical-Cycle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Lemell, X. M. Tong, F. Krausz, and J. Burgdörfer, “Electron Emission from Metal Surfaces by Ultrashort Pulses: Determination of the Carrier-Envelope Phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 076403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct Measurement of Light Waves,” Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of FemtosecondMode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Zenghu Chang, “Carrier envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors,” Appl. Opt.2006. in press.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of a double-pass grating compressor. G is the grating separation. d is the grating constant. β is the diffraction angle. M is a retro-reflection mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The Kansas Light Source (KLS) CE phase controlled femtosecond laser system. The oscillator CE phase offset frequency f 0 is stabilized by feedback controlling the acoustooptic modulator (AOM). Pulses with the same CE phase are selected by the Pockels cell (PC) and sent to the CPA amplifier. The error signal from the collinear f-to-2f interferometer is used to adjust the effective separation of two gratings G1 and G2 in the stretcher to stabilize the CE phase of the amplified pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a), temproal evolution of relative CE phase Δφ CE. A, B and C represent the three kinds of error spikes, repspectively. (b), the relative CE phase (red) and the displacement of PZT (blue) in the first 32 minutes in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The diagram of ATI phase meter, MCP: microchannel plates. 10 minutes locked CE phase results measured by (b) collinear interferometer and (c) the stereo ATI phase meter. The CE phase was abruptly changed every 60 seconds by π by changing the thickness of the wedge plates. More electrons are detected by the one of the MCP (red) or the other (blue).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Precisely controlling the CE phase in amplified pulse. Top, the temporal evolution of collinear f-to-2f interferometer. Bottom, the CE phase staircases

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The error signal for the slow feedback stabilization, (b) the displacement of PZT when the set-point was shifted.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of set-point, averaged relative CE phase and corresponding standard deviation

Metrics