Abstract

We report on the characterization of the ultrafast gain and refractive index dynamics of an InAs/InGaAsP self-assembled quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operating at 1.55 µm through heterodyne pump-probe measurements with 150 fs resolution. The measurements show a 15 ps gain recovery time at a wavelength of 1560 nm, promising for ultrafast switching at >40 GHz in the important telecommunications wavelength bands. Ultrafast dynamics with 0.2-1.5 ps lifetimes were also found consistent with carrier heating and spectral hole burning. Comparing with previous reports on quantum dot SOAs at 1.1–1.3 µm wavelengths, we conclude that the carrier heating is caused by a combination of free-carrier absorption and stimulated transition processes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, P. W. E. Smith, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, P. J. Poole, C. N. Allen, P. Barrios, and D. Poitras, "Characterization of the ultrafast carrier dynamics of an InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier operating at 1.55 μm," in Photonic Applications in Nonlinear Optics, Nanophotonics, and Microwave Photonics, R. A. Morandotti, H. E. Ruda, J. Yao, eds., Proc. SPIE 5971, 91-100 (2005).
  19. J. Mork, T. W. Berg, M. L. Nielsen, and A. V. Uskov, "The role of fast carrier dynamics in SOA based devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 1126-1133 (2004).
  20. C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2006

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Z. I.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Alizon, R.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. N.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bansropun, S.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, P.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, T. W.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bilenca, A.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birkedal, D.

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, S.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Calligaro, M.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. K.

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Vries, T.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dentai, A. G.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dery, H.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deubert, S.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebe, H.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gehrig, E.

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gioannini, M.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadass, D.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichsdorff, F.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hess, O.

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ju, H.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Krakowski, M.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laemmlin, M.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Magnusdottir, I.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, M. H.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, P.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mikhelashvili, V.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, E. P.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otsubo, K.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, D.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Pakulski, G.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parillaud, O.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poole, P. J.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, S.

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Resneau, P.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Schwertberger, R.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Somers, A.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sucha, G.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanbunek, T.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uskov, A. V.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

van der Poel, M.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, J. M.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. A.

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. P.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Wolter, J. H.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Borri, S. Schneider, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, A. E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, Z. I. Alferov, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics and dephasing in InAs quantum-dot amplifiers emitting near 1.3-um-wavelength at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2633-2635 (2001)
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, Y. Lai, E. P. Ippen, G. Eisenstein, and U. Koren, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics and Saturation Behavior in InGaAsP Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2888-2890 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Weiss, J. M. Wiesenfeld, D. S. Chemla, G. Raybon, G. Sucha, M. Wegener, G. Eisenstein, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, U. Koren, B. I. Miller, H. Temkin, R. A. Logan, and T. Tanbunek, "Carrier Capture Times in 1.5 um Multiple Quantum-Well Optical Amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 9-11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, H. K. Choi, C. A. Wang, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Femtosecond Gain Dynamics in InGaAs/AlGaAs Strained-Layer Single-Quantum-Well Diode-Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 96-98 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect.

M. van der Poel, E. Gehrig, O. Hess, D. Birkedal, and J. M. Hvam, "Ultrafast gain dynamics in quantum-dot amplifiers: Theoretical analysis and experimental investigations," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 1115-1123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, "Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 544-551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, R. J. Manning, R. P. Webb, D. Cotter, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, "On ultrafast optical switching based on quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in nonlinear interferometers," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 1265-1267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

J. P. Reithmaier, A. Somers, S. Deubert, R. Schwertberger, W. Kaiser, A. Forchel, M. Calligaro, P. Resneau, O. Parillaud, S. Bansropun, M. Krakowski, R. Alizon, D. Hadass, A. Bilenca, H. Dery, V. Mikhelashvili, G. Eisenstein, M. Gioannini, I. Montrosset, T. W. Berg, M. van der Poel, J. Mork, and B. Tromborg, "InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions," J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 38, 2088-2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Nakata, "Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gbs(-1) directly modulated lasers and 40Gbs(-1) signal-regenerative amplifiers," J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 38, 2126-2134 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. Sugawara, T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and H. Ishikawa, "Quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for high-bit-rate signal processing up to 160 Gb/s and a new scheme of 3R regenerators," Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 1683-1691 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Ju, J. M. Vazquez, Z. Li, R. Notzel, T. de Vries, D. Lenstra, Q. Gong, P. J. van Veldhoven, J. H. Wolter, G. D. Khoe, and H. J. S. Dorren, "Polarization-dependent carrier dynamics in a passive InAs/InP quantum dot waveguide," Opt. Commun. 259, 861-867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, and E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond Gain and Index Nonlinearities in InGaAsP Diode-Lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status. Solidi. B

T. Akiyama, N. Hatori, Y. Nakata, H. Ebe, and M. Sugawara, "Pattern-effect-free amplification and cross-gain modulation achieved by using ultrafast gain nonlinearity in quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Phys. Status. Solidi. B 238, 301-304 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Physica E

C. N. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, "External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 µm," Physica E 26, 372-376 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. W. Bogaart, R. Notzel, Q. Gong, J. E. M. Haverkort, and J. H. Wolter, "Ultrafast carrier capture at room temperature in InAs/InP quantum dots emitting in the 1.55 mu m wavelength region," Appl. Phys. Lett . 86, 173109-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Zilkie, J. Meier, P. W. E. Smith, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, P. J. Poole, C. N. Allen, P. Barrios, and D. Poitras, "Characterization of the ultrafast carrier dynamics of an InAs/InGaAsP quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier operating at 1.55 μm," in Photonic Applications in Nonlinear Optics, Nanophotonics, and Microwave Photonics, R. A. Morandotti, H. E. Ruda, J. Yao, eds., Proc. SPIE 5971, 91-100 (2005).

J. Mork, T. W. Berg, M. L. Nielsen, and A. V. Uskov, "The role of fast carrier dynamics in SOA based devices," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87C, 1126-1133 (2004).

J. Meier, M. Mojahedi, J. S. Aitchison, R. H. Wang, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, "Gain recovery dynamics in InAs-quantum dash optical amplifiers operating at 1550nm," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2006 Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2006), CThGG4.

M. van der Poel, J. Mork, A. Somers, A. Forchel, J. P. Reithmaier, and G. Eisenstein, "Ultrafast gain and index dynamics of quantum dash structures emitting at 1.55µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081102-1-3 (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). ASE spectrum of the QD SOA under 70mA bias, overlayed with the spectrum of the OPO pulses transmitted through the SOA in the transparent TM polarization state. (b) Device transmission versus input pulse energy under bias currents from 0 to 65 mA in increments of 5 mA. The dashed vertical line shows the pump pulse energy used in the pumpprobe experiments. Two separate measurements were needed to achieve the full 40 dB range of input energies, resulting in the small break in the curves at ~2 pJ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of our heterodyne pump-probe experiment. OPO=optical parametric oscillator, λ/2=half-wave plate, PBS=polarization beam-splitting cube, BS=beam splitter, AOM=acousto-optic modulator, NPBS=non-polarizing beam-splitting cube, VOA=variableoptical attenuator, DUT=device under test. Δt is pump-probe delay.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured change in probe amplitude (a) and phase (b) versus pump-probe delay for bias currents up to 70 mA. The dotted lines show the fits to the traces using Eq. (1). (c) Magnitudes of the SHB (red squares), carrier density step (black circles), and CH (black triangles) fit components from the fits in (a), vs. bias current. (d) Corresponding 1/e lifetimes, with dashed line showing smoothed trend in τCH.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Probe transmission versus pump-probe delay over 2 ns showing the long-lived carrier dynamics. Dotted lines show the single-term exponential fits to the data. (a) shows the dynamics for 5-30 mA bias currents (absorption regime), and (b) shows a zoom of the dynamics at 45 and 60 mA (gain regime), illuminating the short 15 ps gain recovery time.

Equations (1)

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h CH = u ( t ) { a CH exp ( t τ CH ) [ 1 exp ( t τ eff ) ] + a SHB exp ( t τ SHB ) } .

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