Abstract

In this paper, we present a low-loss plasmonic Bragg reflector structure with high light-confinement. We show that periodic changes in the dielectric materials of the metal-insulator-metal waveguides can be utilized to design efficient subwavelength Bragg reflectors and micro-cavities. FDTD simulation results of the designed Bragg reflector using realistic material parameters justify that the transfer matrix calculations are adequate for the design purposes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Reather, Suface Plasmons (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Springer Berlin, 1988).
  2. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Degiron and D. R. Smith, "Numerical simulation of long-range plasmons," Opt. Express 14, 1611-1625 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  10. B. Wang and G. P. Wang, "Plasmon bragg reflectors and nanocavities on flat metallic surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Veronis and S. Fan, "Subwavelength plasmonic waveguide structures based on slots in thin metal films," in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies X, Y. Sidorin, C. A. Waechter, eds., Proc. SPIE 6123, 612308 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants and Solids (C Academic, Orlando, Fla, 1985).
  15. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon-polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and EF. Schubert, "Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 30, 1518-1520 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and D. R. Smith, "Numerical simulation of long-range plasmons," Opt. Express 14, 1611-1625 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Xi, M. Ojha, W. Cho, J. L. Plawsky, W. N. Gill, T. Gessmann, and EF. Schubert, "Omnidirectional reflector using nanoporous SiO2 as a low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 30, 1518-1520 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, "Plasmon bragg reflectors and nanocavities on flat metallic surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A. L.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Berolo, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Catrysse, P. B.

Charbonneau, R.

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, W.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gessmann, T.

Gill, W. N.

Girard, C.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroute, Y.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ojha, M.

Plawsky, J. L.

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, EF.

Selker, M. D.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, "Plasmon bragg reflectors and nanocavities on flat metallic surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, "Plasmon bragg reflectors and nanocavities on flat metallic surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J. Q.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. E. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, "Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes," Adv. Mater. 14, 1393-1396 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Wang and G. P. Wang, "Plasmon bragg reflectors and nanocavities on flat metallic surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 013107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Natrue (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Natrue 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, A. Dereux, E. Devaux, T. Ebbesen, C. Girard, M. U. Gonzalez, and A. L. Baudrion, "Near-field characterization of bragg mirrors engraved in surface plasmon waveguides,"Phys. Rev. B 70, 235406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

H. Reather, Suface Plasmons (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Springer Berlin, 1988).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants and Solids (C Academic, Orlando, Fla, 1985).

G. Veronis and S. Fan, "Subwavelength plasmonic waveguide structures based on slots in thin metal films," in Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies X, Y. Sidorin, C. A. Waechter, eds., Proc. SPIE 6123, 612308 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Variation of the neff values with wavelength for the fundamental TM mode in MIM waveguides, (a) Real[neff ], (b) Imag[neff ].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of the neff values with wavelength for the fundamental TM mode in Ag-SiO 2 and Ag-PSiO 2 waveguides, t=30 nm, (a) Real[neff ], (b) Imag[neff ].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum, (a) Bragg reflector structures consisting of 9 and 29 periods, (b) Bragg reflector and microcavity structures of 15 periods, (c) schematic of Bragg reflector consisting of alternately stacked MIM waveguides with different dielectric materials.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field profile [|Hx |2] in the Bragg reflector at different wavelengths, (a) simulated structure, (b) λ=1.9 µm, (c) λ=1.55 µm, (d) λ=1 µm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

FDTD simulation of the micro-cavity structure, (a) micro-cavity schematic, (b) field profile [|Hx |2] at λ=1.55 µm

Equations (3)

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Δ ω g = ω c 4 π sin 1 n eff , 2 n eff , 1 n eff , 2 + n eff , 1 ,
ε d k x 2 + ε m k x 1 coth ( i k x 1 t 2 ) = 0 ,
k x 1 , 2 2 = ε d , m ( ω c ) 2 β 2 ,

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